- Volume 23 Issue 1
The word of lignin is derived from the Latin word 'ligum' meaning wood. Lignin is complex polymer consisting of coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol and p-coumaryl alcohol unit and has an amorphous, three dimensional network structure which is hard to be hydrolyzed by acid. Lignin is found in the cell wall of plants lignified. The mode of polymerization of these alcohols in the cell wall lead to a heterogeneous branched and cross-linked polymer in which phenyl propane units are linked by carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bonds. This polymerization of precursors, p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol to lignin is formed by enzymic dehydrolyzation. The reaction is initiated by an electron transfer which results in the formation of resonance-stabilized phenoxy radical. The combination of these radicals produces a variety of dimers, trimers and oligomers and so on. Lignin research has been divided into basic and practical application field. The basic studies contains biosynthesis, chemical structure, distribution in the cell wall and reactivity by reductants, oxidants and organic solvents. The application research will be approached the reaction of lignin in various pulp making involving pulp bleaching and its effect on pulp qualities. Lignin also will be studied for the production of fine chemicals, polymer products and the conservation into an energy source like petroleum oil because the amount of lignin produced in pulp making process is more than 51,000,000 tons per year in the world. Both basic and application research must lay emphasis on the development for the utilization of lignin and the pulping process. But these researches can not be completed without understanding lignin structure containing functional groups. Therefore, this paper was focused on the review of lignin formulation which has been studied since 1948 in chronological order. This review was based on monomers, dimers, trimers and tetramers of phenyl propane unit structures which were isolated and identified by different methods from various wood.ious wood.