Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomy Menopause and Role of Chondroitin Sulfate

  • Ha, Bae-Jin (Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Silla University)
  • Published : 2004.08.01

Abstract

Oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause oxidative damage to cells. Cells have a number of defense mechanisms to protect themselves from the toxicity of ROS. Mitochondria are especially important in the oxidative stress as ROS have been found to be constantly generated as an endogen threat. Mitochondrial defense depends mainly on super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), whereas microsomal defense depends on catalase (CAT), which is an enzyme abundant in microsomes. SOD removes superoxide anions by converting them to $H_2O$$_2$, which can be rapidly converted to water by CAT and GPx. Also, GPx converts hydroperoxide (ROOH) into oxidized-glutathione (GSSG). Ovariectomized (OVX) rats are used as an oxidative stress model. An ovariectomy increased the levels of MDA, one of the end-products in the lipid peroxidative process, and decreased levels of the antioxidative enzymes; SOD, CAT and GPx. However, Chondroitin sulfate (CS) decreased the levels of MDA, but increased the levels of SOD, CAT and GPx in a dose-depen-dent manner. Moreover, inflammation and cirrhosis of liver tissue in CS- treated rats were sig-nificantly decreased. These results suggest that CS might be a potential candidate as an anti oxidative reagent.

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