DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Pigmentation and Delayed Oxidation of Broiler Chickens by the Red Carotenoid, Astaxanthin, from Chemical Synthesis and the Yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

  • An, G.-H. (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Song, J.-Y. (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Chang, K.-S. (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, B.-D. (Department of Animal Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Chae, H.-S. (National Livestock Research Institute, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Jang, B.-G. (National Livestock Research Institute, Rural Development Administration)
  • Received : 2003.12.04
  • Accepted : 2004.05.15
  • Published : 2004.09.01

Abstract

The red carotenoid, astaxanthin was studied to improve the meat quality of broiler chickens. Astaxanthin pigmented chickens and delayed oxidation of lipid in them. Two sources of astaxanthin were used to pigment broiler chickens in a five-wk feeding trial: biological astaxanthin (BA) from the red yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, and chemical astaxanthin (CA) from chemical synthesis. The concentrations of CA (45 mg/kg feed) and BA (22.5 mg/kg feed) were set to give similar levels of pigmentation. The colorimetric values (a and b) of breast muscles were significantly changed by astaxanthin (p${\leq}$0.01). Absorption and accumulation of BA were higher than those of CA, probably due to the high contents of lipids in the yeast (17%). Lipid peroxide formation in skin was significantly decreased by astaxanthin (p${\leq}$0.05). This result indicated that the production of lipid peroxides in the carcasses of broiler chickens during storage could be delayed by astaxanthin. Therefore, astaxanthin could be used as an antioxidant as well as a colorant for broiler chickens.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration of Korea

References

  1. Akiba, Y., K. Sato and K. Takahashi. 2001. Meat color modification in Broiler chickens by feeding yeast Phaffia rhodozyma containing high concentrations of astaxanthin. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 10:154-161.
  2. Allen, P. C. 1988. Physiological basis for carotenoid malabsorption during coccidiosis. Proc. Maryland Nutr. Conf. 11:18-23.
  3. An, G. H. 2001. Improved growth of the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), in the presence of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Biotech. Letter. 23:1005-1009. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010523800650
  4. An, G. H., C. H. Kim, E. S. Choi and S. K. Rhee. 1996. Medium optimization of a carotenoid-hyperproducing Phaffia rhodozyma mutant HT-5FO1C. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 82:515-518.
  5. Andrewes, A. G., G. Borch, S. Liaaen-Jensen and G. Snatzke. 1974. Carotenoids of higher plants. 7. on the absolute configuration of lutein. Organic Chem. Biochem. 28(1):139-140.
  6. Andrewes, A. G. and M. P. Starr. 1976. (3R,3'R)-Astaxanthin from the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Pytochem. 15:1009-1011.
  7. Davies, B. H. 1976. Chemistry and biochemistry of plant pigments. In: Carotenoids. (Ed. T. W. Goodwin). London, Academic Press, pp. 38-165.
  8. Day, E. J. and W. P. Jr. Williams. 1958. A study of certain factors that influence pigmentation in broilers. Poult. Sci. 37:1373-1381.
  9. Dua, P. N., E. J. Day, J. E. Hill and C. O. Grogan. 1967. Utilization of xanthophylls from natural sources by the chick. J. Agr. Food Chem. 15:324-328.
  10. Fletcher, D. L. 1999. Broiler breast meat color variation, pH and texture. Poult. Sci. 78:1323-1327. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.9.1323
  11. Han, Y., C. M. Parsons and D. E. Alexander. 1987. Nutritive value of high oil corn in poultry. Poult. Sci. 66:103-111.
  12. Jayarajan, P., V. Reddy and M. Makenram. 1980. Effect of dietary fat on absorption of $\beta$-carotene. Indian J. Med. Res. 71:53.
  13. Johnson, E. A. and G. H. An. 1991. Astaxanthin from microbial sources. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 11:297-326.
  14. Johnson, E. A., D. E. Conklin and M. J. Lewis. 1977. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma as a dietary pigment source for salmonids and crustaceans. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34:2417-2421.
  15. Johnson, E. A., T. G. Villa and M. J. Lewis. 1980. Phaffia rhodozyma as an astaxanthin source in salmonid diets. Aquaculture 20:123-134.
  16. Josephson, D. B. 1987. Mechanisms for the Formation of Volatiles in Fresh Seafood Flavors. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  17. Kim, K. H., G. H. An, M. H. Cho, S. H. Lee, C. M. Choi, H. D. Cho, C. H. Lee and I. P. Moh. 1996. Pigmentation of egg yorks with astaxanthin from the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Kor. J. Vet. Res. 36:463-470.
  18. Kosugi, H., T. Kojima and K. Kikugawa. 1989. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances from peroxidized lipids. Lipids. 24:873-881.
  19. Lipstein, B. 1989. Meat quality in broilers, with particular reference to pigmentation. In: Recent advance in animal nutrition. (Ed. W. Haresign and J. A. Cole). London, England, Butterworths. pp. 17-41.
  20. Miki, W. 1991. Biological function and activities of carotenoids. Pure. Appl. Chem. 63:141.
  21. Ru, Y. J., R. J. Hughes, M. Choct and J. A. Kruk. 2003. Variation in nutritive value of commercial broiler diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:830-836.
  22. Sedmak, J. J., D. K. Weerasinghe and S. O. Jolly. 1990. Extraction and quantitation of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma. Biotechnol. Tech. 4:107-112.
  23. Turujman, S. A., W. G. Wamer, R. R. Wei and R. H. Albert. 1997. Rapid liquid chromatographic method to distinguish wild salmon from aquacultured salmon fed synthetic astaxanthin. J. of AOAC Int. 80(3):622-632.

Cited by

  1. Current awareness on yeast vol.22, pp.2, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.1158
  2. , on meat quality of broiler chickens vol.85, pp.10, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12221
  3. Effect of astaxanthin produced by Phaffia rhodozyma on growth performance, meat quality, and fecal noxious gas emission in broilers vol.93, pp.12, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03847