DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Influences of Enzyme Complex Supplementation on Growth, Ileal and Apparent Fecal Digestibility and Morphology of Small Intestine in Pigs

  • Kim, B.G. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Tian, J.Z. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lim, J.S. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kil, D.Y. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jeon, H.Y. (CTC Bio Ltd., Seoul) ;
  • Chung, Y.K. (DangJin Livestock Cooperative Feed Mill) ;
  • Kim, Y.Y. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2003.09.09
  • Accepted : 2004.07.28
  • Published : 2004.12.01

Abstract

A total of 140 weaning pigs were used to determine the effects of digestive enzyme supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance, physiological changes of small intestine, microorganisms and pH in the gastrointestinal tract. Two kinds of enzyme complex (A, B) were used in this experiment. Pigs were allotted in a completely random design (CRD) to five replicates with four pigs per pen. Diets and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. Treatments included 1) Control: without enzyme supplementation, 2) Enzyme A 0.05%, 3) Enzyme A 0.10%, 4) Enzyme A 0.15%, 5) Enzyme B 0.05%, 6) Enzyme B 0.10%, 7) Enzyme B 0.15% in the diets. A total of 24 crossbred barrows 25.78${\pm}$0.55 kg BW fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas were used to evaluate the effect the enzyme addition on the nutrient digstibility. Pigs were allotted 4 treatments (No enzyme, enzyme A 0.05%, enzyme A 0.1%, enzyme A 0.15%), 6 replicates according to a completely random design (CRD). Another digestibility trial was followed for enzyme complex B. Twenty pigs, average 31.92${\pm}$0.37 kg BW, fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas for digestibility trial. Neither enzyme A nor enzyme B affected on fecal or ileal digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash (p>0.05). The apparent fecal digestibilities of all the nutrients were higher in total feces collection method than in indirect method. At the end of feeding trial, 21 pigs were slaughtered for examining the morphological changes of small intestine and the concentration of microorganisms in the ileum and the colon. Growth performance, intestinal morphology and pH of ileum and colon were not affected by the either enzyme complex supplementation (p>0.05). These results suggested that enzyme complex A and enzyme complex B were of no benefit to early-weaned pigs when corn-soybean meal based diet was provided.

Keywords

Pig;Enzyme;Digestibility;Morphology;$\beta$-Glucan

References

  1. Bedford, M. R., J. F. Phatience, H. L. Classen and J. Inborr. 1992. the effect of dietary enzyme supplementation of rye- and barlybased diets on digestion and subsequent performance in weanling pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 72:97-105.
  2. Dritz, S. S., J. Shi, T. L. Kielian, R. D. Goodband, J. L. Nelssen, M. D. Tokach, M. M. Chengappa, J. E. Smith and F. Blecha. 1995. Influence of dietary $\beta$-glucan on growth performance, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to streprococcus suis infection in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3341-3350.
  3. Gdala, J., H. N. Johansen, K. E. B. Knudsen, I. H. Knap, P. Wagner and O. B. Jorgensen. 1997. The digestibility of carbohydrates, protein and fat in the small and large intestine of piglets fed non-supplemented and enzyme supplemented diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 65:15-33.
  4. Hall, G. A. and T. F. Byrne. 1989. Effects of age and diet on small intestinal structure and function in gnobiotic piglets. Res. Vet. Sci. 47:387-392.
  5. Li, S., W. C. Sauer, R. Mosenthin and B. Kerr. 1996a. Effect of $\beta$-glucanase supplementation of cereal-based diets for starter pigs on the apparent digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein and energy. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:223-231.
  6. Wubben, J. E., D. M. Albin, M. R. Smiricky and V. M. Gabert. 1998. Ileal digestibilities of amino acids in growing pigs fed soybean meal and corn starch-based diets supplemented with fiber-degrading enzymes and steeping. http://porknet.outreach. uiuc.edu/pdf/IlealDigestibilitiesOf.PDF.
  7. Thacker, P. A. 2000. Recent advances in the use of enzymes with special reference to $\beta$-glucanases and pentosanases in swine rations. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:376-385. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.376
  8. Fry, R. E., J. B. Allred, L. S. Jensen and J. McGinnis. 1958. Influence of enzyme supplementation and water treatment on the nutritional value of different grains for poults. Poult. Sci. 37:372-375. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0370372
  9. SAS. 1985. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, SAS Inst, Inc., Cary, NC.
  10. Hesselman, K. and P. Aman. 1986. The effect of $\beta$-glucanase on the utilization of starch and nitrogen by broiler chickens fed on barley of low- or high viscosity. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 15:83-93.
  11. Li, S., W. C. Sauer, S. X. Huang and V. M. Gabert. 1996b. Effect of $\beta$-glucanase supplementation to hulless barley- or wheatsoybean meal diets on the digestibilities of energy, protein, $\beta$-glucans, and amino acids in young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1649-1656.
  12. Mavromichalis, I., J. D. Hancock, B. W. Senne, T. L. Gugle, G. A. Kennedy, R. H. Hines and C. L. Wyatt. 2000. Enzyme supplementation and particle size of wheat in diets for nursery and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:3086-3095.
  13. Thacker, P. A. and T. C. Bass. 1996. Effects of gastric pH on the activity of exogenous pentosanase supplementation of the diet on the performance of growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 63:187-200.
  14. Thacker, P. A., G. L. Campbell and J. GrootWassink. 1992. The effect of organic acids and enzyme supplementation on the performance of pigs fed barley-based diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 72:395-402.
  15. Graham, H., J. G. Fadel, C. W. Newman and R. K. Newman. 1989. Effect of pelleting and $\beta$-glucanase supplementation on the ileal and fecal digestibility of a barley-based diet in the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 67:1293-1298.
  16. Jensen, L. S., R. E. Fry, J. B. Allred and J. McGinnis. 1957. Improvement in the nutritional value of barley for chicks by enzyme supplementation. Poult. Sci. 36:919-921.
  17. Pettersson, D. and P. Aman. 1989. Enzyme supplementation of a poultry diet containing rye and wheat. Br. J. Nutr. 62:139-149.
  18. Jensen, M. S., K. E. B. Knudsen, J. Inborr and K. Jakobsen. 1998. Effect of $\beta$-glucanase supplementation on pancreatic enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility in piglets fed diets based on hulled and hulless barley varieties. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 72:329-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00187-9
  19. Thacker, P. A., G. L. Campbell and J. GrootWassink. 1991. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the nutritive value of ryebased diets for swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 71:489-496.
  20. van Lunen, T. A. and H. Schulze. 1996. Influence of Trichoderma longibrachiatium xylanase supplementation of wheat and corn based diets on growth performance of pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 76:271-273.
  21. Makinde, M. O., E. Umapathy, B. T. Akingbemi, K. T. Mandisodz and E. Skadhauge. 1997. Differential response of legumes and creep feeding on gut morphology and faecal composition in weanling pigs. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 118A:349-354.
  22. Thacker, P. A. 2001. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the performance of growing-finishing pigs fed barley-based diets supplemented with soybean meal or canola meal. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1008-1013. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.1008
  23. NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine (10th Ed). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  24. Dierick, N. A. and J. A. Decuypere. 1994. Enzyme and growth in pigs. In: Principles of pig science (Ed. D. J. A. Cole, J. Wiseman and M. A. Varley). Nottingham University Press. Nottingham, UK. pp. 169-195.
  25. Yin, Y. -L., S. K. Baidoo, H. Schulze and P. H. Simmins. 2001. Effects of supplementing diets containing hulless barley variety having different levels of non-starch polysaccharides with $\beta$-glucanase and xylanase on the physiological status of the gastrointestinal tract and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 71:97-107.
  26. Arvola, T., I. Rantala, A. Martinen and E. Isolauri. 1992. Early dietary antigens delay the development of gut mucosal barrier in preweaning rat. Pediatr. Res. 32:301-305.
  27. Hampson, D. J., Z. F. Fu and W. C. Smith. 1988. Preweaning supplementary feed and porcine post-weaning diarrhoea. Res. Veter. Sci. 44:309.
  28. Inborr, J., M. Schmitz and F. Ahrens. 1993. Effect of adding fibre and starch degrading enzymes to a barley/wheat based diet on performance and nutrient digestibility in different segments of the small intestine of early weaned pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 44:113-127.
  29. Kelly, D., J. A. Smyth and K. J. McCracken. 1991. Digestive development in the early-weaned pig. II. Effect of level of food intake on digestive enzyme activity during the immediate post-weaning. Br. J. Nutr. 65:181-188.
  30. Burnett, G. S. 1962. The effect of damaged starch, amylolyitc enzymes, and proteolytic enzymes on the utilization of cereals by chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 3:89-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071666208415463
  31. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis (16th ed). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Supplemental Beta-mannanase on Digestible Energy and Metabolizable Energy Contents of Copra Expellers and Palm Kernel Expellers Fed to Pigs vol.28, pp.7, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0275
  2. The microbial pH-stable exogenous multienzyme improved growth performance and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs fed a corn–soybean-based diet pp.0974-1844, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1358628
  3. Wheat-barley-rye- or corn-fed growing pigs respond differently to dietary supplementation with a carbohydrase complex vol.90, pp.3, 2012, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3766