DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Developmental Gene Expression of Antimicrobial Peptide PR-39 and Effect of Zinc Oxide on Gene Regulation of PR-39 in Piglets

  • Wang, Y.Z. (Feed Science Institute of Zhejiang University) ;
  • Xu, Z.R. (Feed Science Institute of Zhejiang University) ;
  • Lin, W.X. (Feed Science Institute of Zhejiang University) ;
  • Huang, H.Q. (Feed Science Institute of Zhejiang University) ;
  • Wang, Z.Q. (Feed Science Institute of Zhejiang University)
  • Received : 2003.11.21
  • Accepted : 2004.07.07
  • Published : 2004.12.01

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate developmental gene expression of antimicrobial peptide PR-39 and effect of zinc oxide on gene regulation of PR-39 in piglets using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In experiment 1, fifteen female Tai-Hu pigs (a local breed in China) in five groups, each of three pigs at 1, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days of age were used to determine effect of age and weaning on mRNA expression of PR-39. In experiment 2, nine groups of pigs (total seventy-two female 36 days-age weanling Tai-Hu piglets) were assigned to three treatments (${ZnO}_0$, ${ZnO}_{100}$ and ${ZnO}_{3000}$). The feeding experimental period lasted 15 days. After feeding experiment, nine pigs with three animals in each treatment were chosen to determine the effect of ZnO on PR-39 mRNA expression of pigs. The results showed that PR-39 mRNA levels increased steadily in postnatal day 1-28 (preweaning), and weaning significantly decreased PR-39 mRNA expression of piglets (p<0.05). ${ZnO}_{3000}$ (3,000 mg zinc/kg diet) significantly increased PR-39 mRNA expression (p<0.05) when piglets were feed ${ZnO}_{3000}$ diet for 15 days. ${ZnO}_{100}$ (100 mg zinc/kg diet) also increased PR-39 gene expression, but the result was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The result was in accordance with the effect of ${ZnO}_{3000}$ and ${ZnO}_{100}$ on weight gain of piglets and prevention of diarrhea.

Keywords

PR-39;Piglet;Gene Expression;Zinc Oxide;RT-PCR;Antimicrobial Peptide

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China

References

  1. Boman, H. G. 1998. Gene-encoded peptide antibiotics and the concept of innate immunity: an update review. Scand. J. Immunol. 48:15-25.
  2. Bosi, P., C. Gremokolini and P. Trevisi. 2003. Dietary regulations of the intestinal barrier function at weaning. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(4):596-608.
  3. Zhao, C., L. Liu and R. I. Lehrer. 1994. Identification of a new member of the protegrin family by cDNA cloning. FEBS Lett. 346:285-288.
  4. Klug, A. 1999. Zinc finger peptides for the regulation of gene expression. J. Nol. Biol. 293:215-218.
  5. Zhao, C., T. Ganz and R. I. Lehrer. 1995. Stucture of genes for two cathelin-associated antimicrobial peptides: prophenin-2 and PR-39. FEBS Lett. 376:130-134.
  6. Wu, H., G. L. Zhang, C. R. Ross and F. Blecha. 1999. Cathelicidin gene expression in porcine tissues: Roles in ontogeny and tissue specificity. Infect. Immun. 67:439-442.
  7. Carlson, M. S., G. M. Hill and J. E. Link. 1999. Early- and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: effect on metallothioein and mineral concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1199-1207.
  8. Case, C. L. and M. S. Carlson. 2002. Effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth performance and zinc balance in nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1917-1924.
  9. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
  10. NRC, 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, $10^{th}$ Revised Edition. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
  11. Zhang, G., C. R. Ross and F. Blecha. 2000. Porcine antimicrobial peptides: new prospects for ancient molecules of host defense. Vet. Res. 31:277-296.
  12. Panyutich, A., J. Shi, P. L. Boutz, C. Zhao and T. Ganz. 1997. Porcine polymorphonuclear leukocytes generate extracellular microbicidal activity by elastase-mediated activation of secreted proprotegrins. Infect. Immun. 65:978-985.
  13. Roberts, E. S., E. V. Heugten, K. Lloyd, G. W. Almond and J. W. Spears. 2002. Dietary zinc effects on growth performance and immune response of endotoxemic growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(10):1496-1501.
  14. Zhao, C. Q., T. Ganz and R. I. Lehrer. 1995. Structures of genes for two cathelin-associated antimicrobial peptides: prophenin-2 and PR-39. FEBS Lett. 376:130-134.
  15. Hill, G. M., G. L. Cromwell, T. D. Crenshaw, C. R. Dove, R. C. Ewan, D. A. Knabe, A. J. Lewis, C. W. Libal, D. C. Mahan, G. C. Shurson, L. L. Sorthern and T. L. Veum. 2000. Growth promotion effects and plasma changs from feeding high dietary concentration of zinc and copper to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1010-1016.
  16. Zanetti, M., L. Litteri, R. Gennaro, H, Horstmann and D. Romeo. 1990. Bactenecins, defense polypeptides of bovine neutrophils, are generated from precursor molecules stored in the large granules. J. Cell Biol. 111:1363-1371.
  17. Falchuk, K. 1998. The molecular basis for the role of zinc in developmental biology. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 188:41-48.
  18. Hill, G. M., D. C. Mahan, S. D. Carter, G. L. Cromwell, R. C. Ewan, R. L. Harrold, A. J. Lewis, P. S. Miller, G. C. Shurson and T. L. Veum. 2001. Effect of pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide with or without the inclusion of an antibacterial agent on nursery pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 79:934-941.
  19. Storice, P. and M. A. Zanetti. 1993. cDNA derived from pig bone marrow cells predicts a sequence identical to the intestinal antibacterial peptide PR-39. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196:1058-1065.
  20. Boman, H. G. 1995. Peptide antibiotics and their role in innate immunity. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 13:61-92. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.13.040195.000425
  21. Harwig, S. S., V. N. Kokryakov, K. M. Swiderek, G. M. Aleshina, C. Zhao and R. I. Lehrer. 1995. Prophenin-1, an exceptionally proline-rich antimicrobial peptide from porcine leukocytes. FEBS Lett. 362:65-69.
  22. Lehrer, R. I. and T. Ganz. 1999. Antimicrobial peptides in mammalian and insect host defense. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 11:23-27.
  23. Gudmundsson, G. H., K. P. Magnusson, B. P. Chowdhary, M. Johansson, L. Andersson and H. G. Boman. 1995. Structure of the gene for porcine peptide antibiotic PR-39, a cathelin gene family member: comparative mapping of the locus for the human peptide antibiotic FALL-39. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:7085-7089.
  24. Wu, H., G. L. Zhang, J. E. Minton, C. R. Ross and F. Blecha. 2000. Regulation of cathelicidin gene expression: Induction by lipopolysaccharide, Interleukin-6, retinoic acid, and salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection. Infect. Immun. 68:5552-5558.
  25. Zanetti, M., R. Gennaro and D. Romeo. 1995. Cathelicidins: a novel protein family with a common proregion and a variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain. FEBS Lett. 374:1-5.
  26. Wang, Y. Z., S. D. Yu and W. X. Lin. 2002. Cloning and sequence analysis of PR-39 gene of porcine antibacterial peptide in bone marrow. Journal of Zhejiang University 28(6):685-688.
  27. Cousins, R. J. 1998. A role for zinc in the regulation of gene expression. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 57:307-311. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS19980045
  28. Nicholas, P. and A. Mor. 1995. Peptides as weapons against microorganisms in the chemical defense system of vertebrates. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49:277-304.

Cited by

  1. Gastrointestinal health and function in weaned pigs: a review of feeding strategies to control post-weaning diarrhoea without using in-feed antimicrobial compounds vol.97, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01284.x
  2. Effects of Pharmacological Concentrations of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Growth of Post-weaning Pigs: A Meta-analysis vol.152, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9638-3
  3. Effect of dietary lactoferrin on the immune functions and serum iron level of weanling piglets1 vol.85, pp.9, 2007, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-754