- Volume 17 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Growth of Seeded Escherichia coli in Rewetted Cattle Waste Compost of Different Stages
- Hanajima, D. (Pollution Control Laboratory, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science) ;
- Kuroda, K. (Pollution Control Laboratory, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science) ;
- Fukumoto, Y. (Pollution Control Laboratory, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science) ;
- Haga, K. (Pollution Control Laboratory, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science)
- Received : 2003.06.11
- Accepted : 2003.10.11
- Published : 2004.02.01
Compost is used mainly as an organic fertilizer, but it is also used as bedding material for cattle. Dairy cattle have been identified as a main reservoir of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Further, E. coli is regarded as an environmental pathogen that causes bovine clinical mastitis. Hence, its growth in compost spread or compost bedding should be avoided. Physical and chemical conditions, available nutrients and microflora in compost change greatly during the composting process. Since pathogen growth in compost seems to be related to these changes, we assessed the possibility of E. coli growth in compost samples collected at 0, 7, 13, 22, 41, 190 and 360 d. Cattle waste composts with and without added tofu residue were collected from static piles and immediately air-dried. Compost samples were inoculated with a pure culture of E. coli, the moisture content was adjusted to 50%, and the samples were incubated for 5 d at
- Hancock, D. D., T. E. Besser, M. L. Kinsel, P. I. Tarr, D. H. Rice and M. G. Paros. 1994. The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy and beef cattle in Washington State. Epidemiol. Infect. 113:199-207.
- Hogan, J. S., K. L. Smith, K. H. Hoblet, P. S. Schoenberger, D. A. Todhunter, W. D. Hueston, D. E. Pritchard, G. L. Bowman, L. E. Heider, B. L. Brockett and H. R. Conrad. 1989. Field survey of clinical mastitis in low somatic cell count herds. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1547-1556.
- Mathur, S. P., H. Dinel, G. Owen, M. Schnitzer and J. Dugan. 1993. Determination of compost biomaturity. II. Optical density of water extracts of composts as a reflection of their maturity. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 10:87-108.
- Russ, C. F. and W. A. Yanko. 1981. Factors affecting Salmonellae repopulation in composted sludges. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:597-602.
- Soares, H. M., B. Cárdenas, D. Weir and M. S. Switzenbaum. 1995. Evaluating pathogen regrowth in biosolids compost. BioCycle 36:70-76.
- Wang, G., T. Zhao and M. P. Doyle. 1996. Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2567-2570.
- Epstein, E. 1997. Stability, maturity and phytotoxicity. In The Science of Composting. (Ed. E. Epstein). Technomic, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA, pp. 107-136.
- Manafi, M. and W. Kneifel. 1989. A combined chromogenic fluorogenic medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E. coli in water. Zentbl. Hyg. Umweltmed. 189:225-234.
Frampton, E. W., L. Restaino and N. Blaszko. 1988. Evaluation of the
$\beta$-glucuronidase substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl- $\beta$-D-glucuronide (X-GLUC) in a 24 h direct plating method for Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 51:402-404.
- Smith, K. L., D. A. Todhunter and P. S. Schoenberger. 1985. Symposium: Environmental effects on cow health and performance. J. Dairy Sci. 68:1531-1553.
- Hanajima, D., K. Kuroda and K. Haga. 2001. Enhancement of the thermophilic stage in cattle waste composting by addition of tofu residue. Biores. Technol. 78:213-216.
- Schukken, Y. H., F. J. Grommers and D. van de Geer. 1990. Risk factors for clinical mastitis in herds with a low bulk milk somatic cell count: 1. Data and risk factors for all cases. J. Dairy Sci. 73:3463-3471.
- Alonso, J. L., A. Soriano, I. Amoros and M. A. Ferrus. 1998. Quantitative determination of E. coli and fecal coliforms in water using a chromogenic medium. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 33:1229-1248.
- Golueke, C. G. 1983. Epidemiological aspects of sludge handling and management. Bio Cycle 24:50-58.
- Byamukama, D., F. Kansiime, R. L. Mach and A. H. Farnleitner. 2000. Determination of Escherichia coli contamination with Chromocult coliform agar showed a high level of discrimination efficiency for differing fecal pollution levels in tropical waters of Kampala, Uganda. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:864-868.
- SAS Institute Inc. 1988. SAS User's Guide, Release 6.03. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.
- Millner, P. D., K. E. Powers, N. K. Enkiri and W. D. Burge. 1987. Microbial mediated growth suppression and death of Salmonella in composted sewage sludge. Microb. Ecol. 14:255-265.
- O Emission and Denitrifying Community vol.47, pp.13, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1021/es305293h