Comparative Genetic Diversity in Natural and Hatchery Populations of Indian Major Carps (C. catla and L. rohita)

  • Rana, R.S. (Central Institute of Fisheries Education) ;
  • Bhat, K.V. (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa campus) ;
  • Lakhanpal, S. (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa campus) ;
  • Lakra, W.S. (Central Institute of Fisheries Education)
  • Received : 2003.09.17
  • Accepted : 2004.05.27
  • Published : 2004.09.01


This study deals with the characterization of three populations (two hatchery and one natural) of Indian major carps Catla catla and Labeo rohita from different locations in India. The genetics of Indian major carps has been completely obscure and this is the first report on comparative allozyme variations in natural and hatchery population. The total 10 biochemical genetic markers used to measure interspecific and intraspecific level of diversity. The allele frequency data indicate different level of genetic variability in three populations. The hatchery population exhibited least polymorphism, low level of heterozygosity and genetic diversity.


Variation;Allozyme;Diversity;Polymorphism;Cultured;Wild;Indian Major Carps


  1. Allendorf, F. W. and S. R. Phelps. 1988. Loss of genetic variation in hatchery stock of Cutthroat trout. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 109:537-543.
  2. Barman, H. K., A. Barat, M. Bharat, M. Yadav, S. Banerjee, S. Mehar, P. V. G. K. Reddy and R. K. Jana. 2003. Genetic variation between four species of Indian major carps as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay. Aquaculture, 217:115-123.
  3. Behnke, R. J. 1992. The Native trout of genus Salmo of western North America. Monograph for U. S. D. A, Forest service. Fish and wildlife service and Bureau of land management, Lakewood Co: 1-163.
  4. Davis, G. P. and D. J. S. Hetzel. 2000. Integrating molecular genetic technology with traditional approaches for genetic improvement in aquaculture species. Aquaculture Research 31:3-10.
  5. Eknath, A. E. 1991. Simple brood stock management to control indirect selection and inbreeding Indian carp. NAGA, the ICLARM, 738:13-14.
  6. Felsenstein, J. 1993. PHYLIP-phylogenetic inference package, version 3.5c. University of Washington, Seattle.
  7. Ferguson, A. and F. M. Mason. 1981. Allozyme evidence for reproductively isolated sympatric populations of brown trout Salmo trutta in Lough melvin, Irland. J. Fish Biol. 18:629-642.
  8. Fleming, I. A. and M. R. Grass. 1994. Breeding competition in a pacific coho salmon Oncorhymctus mykiss: measure of natural and sexual selection. Evolution, 48:637-657.
  9. Hunter, R. L. and C. Markert. 1957. Histochemical demonstration of enzymes separated by Zone electrophoresis in starch gels. Science 125:1294-1295.
  10. Kim, K. S., J. S. Yeo, J. W. Lee, J. W. Kim and C. B. Choi. 2002. Genetic diversity of Goats from Korea and China using microsatellite analysis. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(4):461-465.
  11. Lewontin, R. C. and J. I. Hubby. 1966. A molecular approach to the study of genetic heterozygosity in natural population. The number of alleles at different loci in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 54:577-594.
  12. Maheswari, U. K. and R. S. Birader. 1997. Decline in fertility of hatchery bred L. rohita due to inbreeding. National symposium on Fish genetics and biodiversity conservation for sustainable production 26-27 Sep 1996. NBFGR. Lucknow.
  13. Menezes, M. R. 1993. Biochemical genetic divergence in three Carangids from the Andaman sea. Current Science 59:209-212.
  14. Nevo, E. 1978. Genetic variation in natural populations: pattern and theory. Theor. Pop. Biol. 13:121-177.
  15. Ryman, N. and G. Stahl. 1981. Genetic perspective of the identification and conservation of Scandinvian stocks of fish. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 38:1562-1575.
  16. Smith, P. J. and A. M. Conroy. 1992. Loss of genetic variation in hatchery produced abalone Haliostis tris N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 26:81-85.
  17. Pandey, A. K., M. S. Tantia, D. Mishra, P. Chaudhary and R. K. Vijh. 2002. Microsatellite analysis of three poultry breeds of India. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(11):1536-1542.
  18. Yeo, J. S., J. W. Kim, T. K. Change, D. H. Nam, J. Y. Han and C. B. Choi. 2002. Detection of DNA fragment to differentiate Korean Cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15 (8):1071-1075.
  19. Allendorf, F. W. 1975. Genetic variability in a species possessing extensive gene duplication: genetic interpretation of duplicate loci and examination of genetic variation in populations of rainbow trout. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, and W.A. p. 98.
  20. Cross, T. F. and J. King. 1983. Genetic effect of hatchery rearing in Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture, 33:33-40.
  21. Velorinen, J. 1984. Reduction of genetic variability in hatchery stock of brown trout Salmo trutta. J. Fish Biol. 24:339-348.
  22. Lande, R. and G. F. Barrowclough. 1988. Effective population size, genetic variation and their use in population management in M. soule, edi. Viable population for conservation, 83:85-124.
  23. Lewontin, R. C. 1974. The genetic basis of evolutionary change. Columbia university press, New York, p. 359.
  24. Allendorf, F. and F. M. Utter. 1979. Population genetics. In, Fish Physiology, edited by W. S. Hoar, Academic press, London, 18:407-454.
  25. Ryman, N. 1981. Conservation of genetic resources. Experience from the brown trout Salmo salar., (Stochkholm), Editorial service/FRN, Stochkholm, 34-61.
  26. Nei, M. 1975. Molecular population Genetics and Evolution. North -Holland. Amsterdam.
  27. Tanguchi, N., K. Sumantadinata and S. Iyama. 1983. Genetic change in the first and second generations of hatchery stocks of black sea bream. Aquaculture, 35:309-320.
  28. Berg, L. S. 1940. Classification of fishes both recent and fossils. Trans. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sci. USSR, 5:517.
  29. Chilcote, M. W., S. A. Leider and J. J. Loc. 1986. Differentiate reproductive success of hatchery and wild summer run steelhead under natural conditions. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 115:726-735.
  30. Padhi, B. K. 1994. Isozyme genetics: Concept and application in fisheries science. Fishing Chimes. 14:26-27.
  31. Allendorf, F. W. 1986. Genetic drift and the loss of alleles versus heterozygosity. Zoo. Biol. 5:181-190.
  32. Elliott, N. G. 2000. Genetic improvement programmes in abalone: What is the future? Aquaculture Research, 31:51-59.
  33. Bank, F. H. Van-der, J. P. Grobler and H. Preez. 1992. A comparative biochemical genetic study of three populations of domesticated and wild African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Comp. Biochem. Physio. 101-13:387-390.
  34. Yoon, Jong-man and Park Hong-yang. 2002. Genetic similarity and variation in the cultured and wild Crucian carp Carassius carassius estimated with Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(4):470-476.
  35. Ferguson, M. M., R. G. Danzann and F. W. Allendorf. 1985. Delopment divergence among hatchery strains of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 27:289-297.
  36. Johnsen, S., P. H. Guddal and T. Johnsen. 1990. Organisation of the mitochondrial genome of Atlantic cod Gardus morhua, Nucleic acid 18:411-419.
  37. Ryman, N. and G. Stahl. 1980. Genetic changes in hatchery stock of brown trout. Salmo trutta. Can. J. Fish Aquat. 37:82-87.

Cited by

  1. Establishment of base population for selective breeding of catla (Catla catla) depending on phenotypic and microsatellite marker information pp.0973-7731, 2018,
  2. by microsatellite DNA markers pp.1355557X, 2018,