- Volume 17 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Supplementation of Cassava Hay and Stylo 184 Hay to Replace Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Cows
- Kiyothong, K. (Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center) ;
- Wanapat, M. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University)
- Received : 2003.08.26
- Accepted : 2004.02.03
- Published : 2004.05.01
Sixteen multiparous Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows in mid-lactation were blocked according to days in milk (DIM) and previous lactation and randomly assigned according to a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with four replications to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments consisted of T1: No cassava hay (CH) or stylo 184 hay (SH) supplementation, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:2 (control), T2: Supplementation of 1 kg of CH/hd/d, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:2, T3: Supplementation of 1 kg of CH+SH/hd/d, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:2, T4: Supplementation of 2 kg of CH+SH/hd/d, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:3. All animals received Ruzi grass from a cut-and-carry system as roughage source. The feeding trial lasted for 9 weeks. The results revealed that DMI of concentrate of supplemented treatments were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those in the control, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3. There was no significant difference in forage DM intake between the control and supplemented treatments. CP and NDF digestibility of supplemented treatments were significantly (p<0.05) greater than the control and there were no significant differences among supplemented treatments. Milk yield and 3.5% FCM (14.3, 14.5, 14.7 and 14.8; 13.9, 14.3, 14.3 and 14.6 kg/hd/d, respectively) were not significantly different among treatments. Milk protein percentage of supplemented treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control, but there were no significant differences among supplemented treatments. There was no significant difference in milk fat percentage between the control and supplemented treatments. However, milk fat percentage tended to be higher for supplemented animals as compared to the control group. There were also no significant differences in lactose, solids-not-fat and total solids percentages among treatments. Cows in supplemented treatments gave incomes over supplement cost (IOSC) of 2.72, 2.74 and 2.93 US$/hd/d, respectively which were greater than for cows on control treatment. Furthermore, IOSC were greatest for cows in T4 as compared to other treatments. Based on this study it was concluded that, feeding cassava hay solely or in combination with stylo 184 hay as a supplemental protein source could be a potential valuable strategy in small-holder dairy farming systems in the tropics. This strategic supplementation significantly reduced concentrate use, which resulted in improved milk yields and milk quality for the supplemented cows. Moreover, it resulted in higher economical returns through increased productivity and lower ratios of concentrate to milk yield, from 1:2 to 1:3.
- Burns, R. 1971. Method for estimatation of tannin in grain sorghum. Agronomy Journal 63:511-512.
- Kearl, L. C. 1982. Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries. Logan: International Feedstuffs Institue. Utah State University, Utah.
- Nguyen, T. T. H., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn and P. Pakdee. 2002. Effects of initial cutting and subsequent cutting on yield and chemical compositions of cassava hay and its supplementation on lactating dairy cows. In: Proc. Agriculture Conference, Narasuan University, Pitsanuloke, Thailand, July 26-30.
- Silva, A. T. and E. R. Orskov. 1988. The effect of five different supplements on the degradation of straw in sheep given untreated barley straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 19:289-298.
- Waghorn, G. C. 1990. Effects of condensed tannin on protein digestion and nutritive value of fresh herbage. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 18:412-415.
- Wanapat, M., A. Polthanee, S. Wanapat and C. Wachirapakorn. 2002. Feasibility study on cassava leaf/hay as animal feeds. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kean University, Khon Kaen 4002, Thailand.
- Wanapat, M. 1990. Nutritional Aspects of Ruminant Production in Southeast Asia with Special Reference to Thailand. Funny Press, Ltd., Bangkok, Thailand.
- Sutton, J. D., I. C. Hart, W. H. Broster, R. J. Elliot and E. Schuller. 1986. Feeding frequency for lactating cows: effect on rumen fermentation and blood metabolites and hormones. Br. J. Nutr. 56:181-192.
- Horne, P. M. and W. W. Sturr. 1999. Developing forage technologies with smallholder farmers-how to select the best varieties to offer farmers in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph.
- Van Soest, P. J. and J. B. Robertson. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
- Mpairwe, D. R. 1998. Integration of forage legumes with cereal crops for improved grain yield, forage production and utilisation for small-holder dairy production systems. PhD. thesis, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, p. 241.
- Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC, USA.
- Wanapat, M. and C. Devendra. 1992. Feeding and nutrition of dairy cattle and buffaloes in Asia.In:Proc. Sustainable Animal Production. 6th AAAP Animal Science Congress VII. (Ed. P. Bunyavejchewin, S. Sangdid and K. Hangsanet) Navakanok.Co., Ltd., Bangkok, Thailand.
- Leng, R. A. 1997. Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/W7448E/W7448E01.htm
- Van Keulen, J. and B. A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acidinsoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. J. Anim. Sci. 44:282.
- Leng, R. A. 2003. Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, 139. p. 100.
- NRC. 2001. Nutritional Requirement of dairy cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
- Norton, B. W. and J. H. Ahn. 1997. A comparison of fresh and dried Calliandra calothyrsus supplements for sheep given a basal diet of barley straw. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge. 129:485-494.
- Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach.McGraw-Hill, New York.
- Bonsi, M. L. K., P. O. Osuji and A. K. Tuak. 1995. Effect of supplementating teff straw with different levels of leucaena or sesbania leaves on the degradbilities of teff straw, sesbania, leucaena, tagasaste and vernonia and on certain rumen and blood metabolites in Ethiopia Menz sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 52:101-129.
- SAS. 1998. User's Guide: Statistics, Version 6.12th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
- Office of Agricultural Economics 1997. Target of production of important agricultural products in1996-1997.Bangkok: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative.
- Topps, J. H. 1997. Forage legumes as protein supplements to poor quality diets in the semi-arid tropics. In: (Ed. R. J. Wallace and A. Lahloukassi), Rumen Ecology Research Planning. Proceedings of workshop held at ILRI, 13-18 March 1995, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
- Minson, D. J. 1982. Effects of chemical and physical composition of herbage eaten upon intake. In: (Ed. J. B. Hacker) Nutritional Limits to Animal Production from Pasture, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Farnharm Royal, UK (1982), p. 67-182.
- Office of Livestock Extension 1998. Data of Economical Livestock, Department of Livestock Development, the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Bangkok, Thailand, p. 150.
- Satjipanon, C., V. Jinosaeng and V. Susaena. 1995. Forage seed production project for Southeast Asia, Annual report 1993-1994. Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research Center, Department of Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative. p. 124-131.
- Wanapat, M., A. Petlum and O. Pimpa. 2000a. Supplementation of cassava hay to replace concentrate use in lactating Holstein-Friesian crossbreds. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:600-604.
- Wanapat, M., O. Pimpa, W. Siphuak, T. Puramongkon, A. Petlum, U. Boontao, C. Wachirapakorn and K. Sommart. 2000b. Cassava hay: an important on-farm feed for ruminants. In: (Ed. J. D. Brooker), International Workshop on Tannins in Livestock and Human Nutrition, ACIAR Proc. No. 92, p. 71-74.
- Chantalakhana, C. 1994. Report on Status and Development of Dairy Production and Milk Products in Thailand: Research and Development in the Future. Thailand Research Fund (TRF), Bangkok Thailand p. 88.
- Khang, N. D. and H. Wiktorsson. 2000. Effect of cassava leaf meal on ruminant environment of yellow cattle fed urea-treated paddy straw. Asian-Aust. J. Sci. 13:1102-1108.
- Department of Livestock Development. 2002. Forage legume information. http://www.dld.go.th.html
- Mannetje, L.'t. and R. M. Jones. 1992. Plants Resources of Southeast Asia.No.4 Forages. p. 300.
- Wanapat, M., O. Pimpa, A. Petlum and U. Boontao. 1997. Cassava hay: A new strategic feed for ruminants during the dry season. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 9(2): IRRD Home Page.
- ARC. 1980. Agricultural Research Council (ARC). The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, UK (1980).
- Department of Livestock Development, 2002. Table 13 Statistics of dairy cattle on January 2002. http://www.dld.go.th/yearly /yearly43/yearly43.html
- Wanapat, M. and O. Poungchompu. 2001. Method for estimation of tannin by vanillin-HCl method (2001, a methode of Burns, 1971). Department of Animal Science, Khon Kean University, Khon Kaen 4002, Thailand.
- Wanapat, M. 2003. Manipulation of cassava cultivation and utilization to improve protein to energy biomass for livestock feeding in the tropics. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:463-472.
- Effects of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo vol.43, pp.8, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9836-y