Evaluation of Fermentation Quality of a Tropical and Temperate Forage Crops Ensiled with Additives of Fermented Juice of Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria (FJLB)

  • Yahaya, M.S. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University) ;
  • Goto, M. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University) ;
  • Yimiti, W. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University) ;
  • Smerjai, B. (Ryukyu University) ;
  • Kawamoto, Y. (Ryukyu University)
  • Received : 2003.07.31
  • Accepted : 2004.04.01
  • Published : 2004.07.01


This study aimed to examine the fermentation quality of a tropical Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpuereum) and temperate Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forages ensiled additive of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to determine what factor affects the fermentation characteristics of the crops. In both species cell walls neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents in silages were consistently decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FJLB at ensiling more then Control treatment. The FJLB additive increased number of LAB (cfu) and lactate concentration in the silages in both species. The Control treatment without additive underwent a clostridial type of fermentation with traces of propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric acids contents with higher (p<0.01) levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN %TN) and had appreciable decreased of nutrient in silages. FJLB treatment improved silage nutritive value with little contents of VBN %TN, ethanol and very small amount of dry matter (DM) and hemicellulose losses (p<0.05) between 2 to 5% and 7 to 3% respectively, in Elephant grass and Italian ryegrass species. The results in this study indicates that while among the factors affecting silage fermentation butyric type of fermentation was more pronounced in tropical elephant grass compared to the temperate Italian ryegrass, FJLB additive revealed a better silage fermentation products in both species.


Tropical and Temperate Forage Crop;Fjlb Additive;Silage Fermentation


  1. Butler, G. W. and R. W. Bailey. 1973. Criteria for assessing the efficiency of fermentation process. In: (Ed. G. W. Butler and R. W. Bailey) Chemistry and Biochemistry of Herbage, 3:33-80.
  2. Conway, E. J. and E. O’ Malley. 1942. Microdiffusion method:ammonia and urea using buffer absorbents (revised methods for ranges greater than 10 (g N) Biochemistry Journal, 36:655-661.
  3. Czerkawski, J. W. 1986. Structural carbohydrates in forages, In: (Ed. J. W. Czerkawszki) An introduction to rumen studies, 1st edition, Pergamon press pp. 1-170.
  4. Deriaz, R. E. 1961. Routine analysis of carbohydrates and lignin in herbage. J. Sci. food Agric. 12:153-160.
  5. McDonald, P., A. R. Henderson and S. J. E. Heron. 1991. Principles of ensiling. In: (P. McDonald, A. R. Henderson and S. J. E. Heron) Biochemistry of silage, 2rd edition Chalcombe Publication, Lincol, UK, pp. 9-40.
  6. Matsuko, T., S. Okada, T. Uchimura and K. Awaya. 1992. Effects of inoculation with lactic acid bacterial calture at ensiling on the fermentative quality and flora of lactic acid bacteria of grass silage, J. Grassland Sci. (Japan) 63:1182-1187.
  7. Matsuko, T., H. Yoji, T. Yuki, C. Li-man, M. Goto and M. Ohshima. 2002. Effect of addition of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria prepared from timothy and orchardgrass on fermentation quality of silages, J. Grassland Sci. (Japan), 48:120-125.
  8. Snedecor, G. W. and M. G. Cochran. 1980. Data classification and analysis of variance. In: (G. W. Snedecor and M. G. Cochran), statistical methods 7th dition Iowa State University press pp. 255-333.
  9. Yahaya, M. S., H. V. Nguyen, M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. atsuoka. 2002c. The effects of growth stage at ensiling on degradation of structural arbohydrates of lucerne, Malaysian J. Anim. Sci. (MJAS) 7(2):49-54.
  10. Yahaya, M. S., M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2003b Effect of prolonging the time of filling into silo on silo degradation and digestibility of structural carbohydrate of orchardgrass (JAVA) J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 2:23-29.
  11. Yahaya, M. S., A. Kimura, J. Harai, H. V. Nguyen, M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2001a. Effect of length of ensiling on silo degradation and digestibility of structural carbohydrates of lucerne and orchardgrass. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 92:141-148.
  12. Yahaya, M. S., M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2002a. The effects of different moisture content at ensiling on silo degradation and digestibility of structural carbohydrates of orchardgrass, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 101:127-133.
  13. Gibson, T., A. C. Sterling, R. M. Keddie and R. F. Rosenberger. 1958. Bacteriological changes in silages made at control temperatures, Journal of general microbiollogy, 19:112-129.
  14. Weise, F. and M. Wermke. 1973. The effect of weather on epiphytic micro-organism of smooth stalked meadow fescue (Poa proteanese L.). Doe. irtshafseigene Futter, 19:22.
  15. Li-man, C., M. Goto and M. Ohshima. 2002. Variation in the fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage of different harvest time as treated with fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria, J. Grassland Sci. (Japan) 47:583-587.
  16. Plane, M. J. and P. McDonald. 1966. The buffering constituents of herbage and of silage, J. Sci. Food and Agric. 17:264-268.
  17. Yahaya, M. S., Goto M., W. Yimiti, S. Karita, B. Smerjai and Y. Kawamoto. 2003a. Fermentation characteristics of two tropical forage crops ensiled with the additives of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria and commercial acetic acid powder (submitted to J. Grass and Forage Science British Grassland Society and European Grassland Federation).
  18. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition, J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  19. Ohshima, M., E. Kimura and H. Yokota. 1997a. A methods of making good quality silage from direct cut alfalfa by spraying previously fermented juices, Anim. Feed Sci. Technolo. 66:129-137.
  20. Jones, B. A., L. D. Satter and R. E. Muck. 1992. Influences of bacterial inoculant and substrate addition to lucerne ensiled at different dry matter contents. Grass and Forage Science, 47:19-27.
  21. Micheal, K. W. 1984. Ensiling process. In: (Ed. I. L. Allen, I. M. Rechard) Silage fermentation Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 1-22.
  22. Ohshima, M., Cao L. M. Yokota, E. Kimura, Y. Ohshima and H. Yokota. 1997b. Influence of addition of fermented green juice to alfalfa ensiled at different moisture contents, J. Grassland Sci. (Japan), 43:56-68.
  23. Yahaya, M. S, J. Takahashi, S. Matsuoka and A. Kibon. 1999. Effect of supplementary feeding of cotton seed cake on feed intake, water consumption and work output of work bulls in Borno state Nigeria Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 79:137-143.
  24. Yahaya, M. S., M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2002b. The effects of different moisture and ensiling time on silo degradation of structural arbohydrates of orchardgrass, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(2):213-217.
  25. Gibson, T., A. C. Sterling, R. M. Keddie and R. F. Rosenberger. 1961. Bacteriological changes in silages as affected by laceration of the fresh grass, Journal of general applied bacteriology, 34:60-70.
  26. Stephen, J. W. and J. N. Micheal. 1960. The ensiling process and action of microorganism In: (J. W. Stephen and J. N. Micheal) The conservation of grass and forage crop Oliver and Boyd Edinburgh London pp. 215-225.
  27. Ducan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range test and multiple F test Biometrics 11:1-42.
  28. Yahaya, M. S., A. Kiimura, J. Harai, M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2001b. Evaluation of structural carbohydrates losses and digestibility in alfalfa and orchardgrass during ensiling Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14(12):1701-1704.
  29. De-Visser, H., C. Klop, C. J. Van der Kolen and A. M. Vuuren. 1998. Starch Supplementation of grass harvested at two stages of maturity prior to ensiling. Intake, digestion and digestibility by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2221-2227.
  30. Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures and some Applications, Handbook, Vol. 379 ARS-USD, Washington, DC.

Cited by

  1. L.) straw on the Tibetan Plateau pp.17446961, 2017,
  2. The effect of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria with or without different byproduct from defatted rice bran and green tea waste on napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Shumach) silage fermentation vol.86, pp.7, 2006,
  3. L.) in Tibet vol.73, pp.3, 2018,
  4. Effect of total mixed ration silage containing agricultural by-products with the fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on rumen fermentation and nitrogen balance in ewes pp.1573-7438, 2019,