Effects of Different Dietary Acidifier Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus on Ammonia, Methane and Odorant Emission from Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Kim, I.B. (SunJin Co., LTD.) ;
  • Ferke, P.R. (Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University) ;
  • Powers, W.J. (Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University) ;
  • Stein, H.H. (Department of Animal Science, South Dakota State University) ;
  • Van Kempe, T.A.T.G. (Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University)
  • 투고 : 2003.10.24
  • 심사 : 2004.04.21
  • 발행 : 2004.08.01


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources of Ca and P on urine and ileal digesta pH, and ammonia ($NH_{3}$), methane ($CH_{4}$), and odor emission. In experiment 1, eight pigs (commercial three-way cross; initial BW 67$\pm$3 kg) were arranged in a repeated 4$\times$4 Latin Square design. All pigs were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Four corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated. Diet 1 was the control in which dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and limestone ($CaCO_{3}$) were used as the sources of inorganic P and Ca. In Diets 2 and 3, ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$, monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and $CaSO_{4}$replaced DCP and $CaCO_{3}$ as the inorganic sources of P and Ca. Diet 4 was similar to Diet 1 except that it was fortified with HCl to provide an acid load similar to that of diet 2. Urine and ileal digesta pH were determined in pigs fed each of these diets. In Exp. 1, urine pH decreased (p<0.05) in animals consuming diets containing ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$ (5.85$\pm$0.38) and MCP-$CaSO_{4}$(5.73$\pm$0.30) compared with the DCP-$CaCO_{3}$ diet (6.89$\pm$0.24). In the pigs consuming ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$, ileal digesta pH decreased compared with the control (5.52$\pm$0.28 vs. 6.66$\pm$0.17; p<0.05). Based on the results of Exp. 1, a total of four trials were performed in environmental chambers for determining how $NH_{3}$, $NH_{4}$, and odor were affected by the different dietary Ca and P sources (Exp. 2). In Exp. 2, pigs fed the ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$ diet had decreased (30%) $NH_{3}$ emissions compared with the control (p<0.05). Also, a combination of MCP-$CaCO_{3}$-$CaCl_{12}$ decreased $NH_{3}$ emission by 15% (p<0.05). Emission of $CH_{4}$ was decreased only with the ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$ diet with 14% (p<0.05). Odorant emission of phenolics and volatile fatty acids increased roughly three-fold with the DCP-$CaSO_{4}$ diet but was not affected by other test diets. In conclusion, acidogenic Ca and P sources in swine diets can decrease the urinary pH and reduce $NH_{3}$ and $CH_{4}$ emission from swine facilities.


  1. Gralapp, A. K., W. J. Powers, M. A. Faust and D. S. Bundy. 2002. Effects of dietary ingredients on manure characteristics and odorous emissions from swine. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1512-1519.
  2. Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll and D. C. Buso. 1996. Long-term effects of acid rain: Response and recovery of a forest ecosystem. Science (Wash., DC) 272:244-245.
  3. Mroz, Z., A. J. Moeser, K. Vreman, J. T. M. van Diepen, T. van Kempen, T. T. Canh and A. W. Jongbloed. 2000. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:3096-3106.
  4. Rom, H. B. 1995. Ammonia emission from pig confinement buildings. System analysis and measuring methods. Ph. D. Thesis. Danish Institute of Animal Science, Bygholm.
  5. Sommer, S. G. and S. Husted. 1995. The chemical buffer system in raw and digested animal slurry. J. Agric. Sci. 124:45-53.
  6. USEPA. 1992. Anthropogenic methane emission in the United States. Office of Air and Radiation, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  7. Veenhuizen, M. F., G. C. Shurson and E. M. Kohler. 1992. Effect of concentration and source of sulfate on nursery pig performance and health. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 201:1203-1208.
  8. Yen, J. T., W. G. Pond and R. L. Prior. 1981. Calcium chloride as a regulator of feed intake and weight gain in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 52:778-782.
  9. Chen, Y. H., S. Y. Wang and J. C. Hsu. 2003. Effect of caecectomy on body weight gain, intestinal characteristics and enteric gas production in Gosilings. Asian-Aust. J. Amin. Sci. 16(7):1030-1034.
  10. NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine (10th Ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  11. Hobbs, P. J., T. H. Misselbrook, M. S. Dhanoa and K. C. Persaud. 2001. Development of a relationship between olfactometry response and major odorants from organic wastes. J. Sci. Food Agric. 81:188-193.
  12. Vlek, P. L. G. and J. M. Stumpe. 1978. Effects of solution chemistry and environmental conditions on ammonia volatilization losses from aqueous systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42:416-421.
  13. Huang, W. H., D. S. Bundy, S. J. Hoff, X. Li and Q. Liu. 1996. Development of an automated forced-choice, dynamic-dilution olfactometer. Conference Proceedings: International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations. February 7-9, 1996. pp. 239-244. Midwest Plan Service, Ames, Iowa.
  14. van Kempen, T. A. T. G. 2001. Dietary adipic acid reduces ammonia emission from swine excreta. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2412-2417.
  15. IPCC. 1995. Radiative forcing of climate and an evaluation of the IPCC 1992 emission scenarios. (Ed. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callandar, E. Haites, N. Harris and K. Maskell). Intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  16. Sutton, A. L., K. B. Kephart, M. W. A. Verstegen, T. T. Canh and P. J. Hobbs. 1999. Potential for reduction of odorous compounds in swine manure through diet modification. J. Anim. Sci. 77:430-439.
  17. SAS. 1992. SAS User's Guide: Statistics (Version 6. 12 Ed.). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC
  18. Littell, R. C., G. A. Milliken, W. W. Stroup and R. D. Wolfinger. 1996. SAS systems for mixed models. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  19. Patience, J. F., R. E. Austic and R. D. Boyd. 1987. Effect of dietary electrolyte balance on growth and acid-base status in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 64:457-466.
  20. Hobbs, P. J., T. H. Misselbrook and B. F. Pain. 1995. Assessment of odours from livestock wastes by photoionization detector, an electronic nose, olfactometry and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 60:137-144.
  21. Shurson, J., M. Whitney and R. Nicolai. 1999. Manipulating diets may reduce hydrogen sulfide emissions. http://www.feedstuffs. com/feed/articleDetail/1,1931,11889,00.html. Accessed 27 June, 2002).
  22. Okumura, J. I. and I. Tasaki. 1968. Urinary nitrogen excretion in fowl fed acid or alkali. J. Nutr. 95:148.
  23. Budde, R. A. and T. D. Crenshaw. 2003. Chronic metabolic acid load induced by changes in dietary electrolyte balance increased chloride retention but did not compromise bone in growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 81:197-208.
  24. Canh, T. T., A. J. A. Aarnink, M. W. A. Verstegen and J. W. Schrama. 1998a. Influence of dietary factors on the pH and ammonia emission of slurry from growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1123-1130.
  25. Mackie, R. I., P. G. Stroot and V. H. Varel. 1998. Biochemical identification and biological origin of key odor components in livestock waste. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1331-1341.
  26. Harper, L. A., O. T. Denmead, J. R. Freney and F. M. Byers. 1999. Direct measurements of methane emissions from grazing and feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1392-1401.
  27. Schaefer, J. 1977. Sampling, characterization and analysis of malodors. Agric. Environ. 3:121-127.
  28. Muck, R. E. and T. S. Steenhuis. 1981. Nitrogen losses in free stall dairy barns. In: Livestock Waste, a Renewable Resource. Proc. Symp. ASAE, St. Joseph MI, No. 169, pp. 406-409.
  29. Stevens, R. J., R. J. Laughlin and J. P. Frost. 1989. Effect of acidification with sulphuric acid on the volatilization of ammonia from cow and pig slurry. J. Agric. Sci. 113:389-395.
  30. Zhu, J. and L. D. Jacobson. 1999. Correlating microbes to major odorous compounds in swine manure. J. Environ. Qual. 28:737-744.
  31. Canh, T. T., A. J. A. Aarnink, Z. Mroz, A. W. Jongbloed, J. W. Schrama and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1998b. Influence of electrolyte balance and acidifying calcium salts in the diet of growing-finishing pigs on urinary pH, slurry pH and ammonia volatilization from slurry. Livest. Prod. Sci. 56:1-13.
  32. Gralapp, A. K., W. J. Powers and D. S. Bundy. 2001. Comparison of olfactometry, gas chromatography and electronic nose technology for measurement of indoor air from swine facilities. Trans. ASAE 44:1283-1290.
  33. Otto, E. R., M. Yokoyama, S. Hengemuehle, R. D. von Bermuth, T. van Kempen and N. L. Trottier. 2003. Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, phenolics, and odor offensiveness in manure from growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1754-1763.
  34. Pain, B. F., R. B. Thompson, L. C. N. De La L. Cremer and L. Ten Holte. 1987. The use of additives in livestock slurries to improve their flow properties, conserve nitrogen and reduce odours. In: (Ed. H. G. V. D. Meer, R. J. Unwin, T. A. van Dijk, and G. C. Ennik) Animal Manure on Grassland and Fodder Crops. pp. 229-246. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  35. Lana, R. P., J. B. Russell and M. E. Van Amburgh. 1998. The role of pH in regulating ruminal methane and ammonia production. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2190-2196.