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Effects of Different Dietary Acidifier Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus on Ammonia, Methane and Odorant Emission from Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Kim, I.B. (SunJin Co., LTD.) ;
  • Ferke, P.R. (Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University) ;
  • Powers, W.J. (Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University) ;
  • Stein, H.H. (Department of Animal Science, South Dakota State University) ;
  • Van Kempe, T.A.T.G. (Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University)
  • 투고 : 2003.10.24
  • 심사 : 2004.04.21
  • 발행 : 2004.08.01

초록

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources of Ca and P on urine and ileal digesta pH, and ammonia ($NH_{3}$), methane ($CH_{4}$), and odor emission. In experiment 1, eight pigs (commercial three-way cross; initial BW 67$\pm$3 kg) were arranged in a repeated 4$\times$4 Latin Square design. All pigs were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Four corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated. Diet 1 was the control in which dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and limestone ($CaCO_{3}$) were used as the sources of inorganic P and Ca. In Diets 2 and 3, ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$, monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and $CaSO_{4}$replaced DCP and $CaCO_{3}$ as the inorganic sources of P and Ca. Diet 4 was similar to Diet 1 except that it was fortified with HCl to provide an acid load similar to that of diet 2. Urine and ileal digesta pH were determined in pigs fed each of these diets. In Exp. 1, urine pH decreased (p<0.05) in animals consuming diets containing ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$ (5.85$\pm$0.38) and MCP-$CaSO_{4}$(5.73$\pm$0.30) compared with the DCP-$CaCO_{3}$ diet (6.89$\pm$0.24). In the pigs consuming ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$, ileal digesta pH decreased compared with the control (5.52$\pm$0.28 vs. 6.66$\pm$0.17; p<0.05). Based on the results of Exp. 1, a total of four trials were performed in environmental chambers for determining how $NH_{3}$, $NH_{4}$, and odor were affected by the different dietary Ca and P sources (Exp. 2). In Exp. 2, pigs fed the ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$ diet had decreased (30%) $NH_{3}$ emissions compared with the control (p<0.05). Also, a combination of MCP-$CaCO_{3}$-$CaCl_{12}$ decreased $NH_{3}$ emission by 15% (p<0.05). Emission of $CH_{4}$ was decreased only with the ${H_{3}}{PO_{4}}$-$CaSO_{4}$ diet with 14% (p<0.05). Odorant emission of phenolics and volatile fatty acids increased roughly three-fold with the DCP-$CaSO_{4}$ diet but was not affected by other test diets. In conclusion, acidogenic Ca and P sources in swine diets can decrease the urinary pH and reduce $NH_{3}$ and $CH_{4}$ emission from swine facilities.

키워드

Ammonia;Methane;Odor;Phosphorus;Calcium;Acidifiers;Pigs

참고문헌

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