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Effects of Salmonella typhymurium Lipopolysaccharide Challenge on the Performance, Immune Responses and Zinc Metabolism of Laying Hens Supplemented with Two Zinc Sources

  • Cheng, Tingshui ;
  • Guo, Yuming
  • Received : 2004.03.25
  • Accepted : 2004.06.21
  • Published : 2004.12.01

Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the effect of Salmonella typhymurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on egg-laying performance, inflammatory response, zinc metabolism in layer fed diets supplemented with organic or inorganic zinc since 3-wk-old. The three dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal basal diet without supplemental zinc or with supplemental zinc at 60 mg/kg zinc from $ZnSO_4$ or zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA). At the age of 58 wk-old, twelve hens from each dietary treatment were allotted into two sub-groups. On day 1, 3, 5, 7 of the $58^{th}$ week of age, six birds of one sub-group were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 2 ml LPS (1.0 $\ell$/ml) or sterile saline. Neither zinc source ${\times}$ immune challenge interaction nor zinc source effect on egg production performance was observed (p>0.05), LPS-challenge decreased egg production (p<0.04) and increased percentage of cracked eggs (p <0.01). With LPS challenged, the fever response of hens fed ZnAA peaked and subsided earlier than in hens fed $ZnSO_4$ or basal diet. Serum IL-1$\beta$ at 3 h was higher (p<0.01), but lower (p<0.001) at 12 h post-challenge with LPS in hens fed ZnAA than $ZnSO_4$. In salinetreated groups, serum IL 1$\beta$ was higher in hens fed ZnAA than the basal diet at 3 h post-injection (p<0.01). LPS-challenged birds had lower serum zinc and higher zinc sequestered in liver and spleen (p<0.001). In saline-treated birds, there was no difference in zinc concentration of serum, liver and spleen among different dietary treatments (p>0.05). Supplementation of 60 mg/kg zinc from either ZnAA or $ZnSO_4$ significantly (p<0.05) elevated metallothionein (MT) concentration in liver and spleen. MT concentration in liver of birds fed ZnAA diet was higher than in those fed $ZnSO_4$ diet (p<0.05). The magnitude of increase of hepatic and splenic MT due to LPS challenge was higher by supplementation of ZnAA than $ZnSO_4$. The results suggest that zinc amino acid complex enhanceed MT synthesis and zinc sequestered in liver and spleen and increased the sensitivity to immune response due to LPS challenge.

Keywords

Zinc Amino Acid Complex;Egg Production;Inflammatory Response;Metallothionein;Lipopolysaccharide;Laying Hens

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Zinpro Co. Ltd. in USA