Ultrasonographic Measurements in Comparison with the Rectal Palpation and Echotexture of Reproductive Organs of Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle

  • Honparkhe, M. (Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Punjab Agricultural University) ;
  • Gandotra, V.K. (Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Punjab Agricultural University) ;
  • Nanda, A.S. (Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Punjab Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2003.09.25
  • Accepted : 2004.03.04
  • Published : 2004.07.01


Ultrasonographic study was undertaken to establish the echogenecity and size of reproductive organs of 18 cycling buffaloes of different parities and compared with the sizes measured by palpation per rectum at estrus (day 0), met estrus (day 2), mid diestrus (day 10) and late diestrus (day 16). The overall mean size of cervix, uterine body, right horn, left horn, right ovary and left ovary measured by palpation per rectum were 2.70$\pm$0.43, 2.36$\pm$0.36, 2.17$\pm$0.37, 2.12$\pm$0.38, 2.63$\pm$0.41 and 2.72$\pm$0.37 cm, respectively. The corresponding ultrasonographic observations were 2.10$\pm$0.40, 1.85$\pm$0.30, 1.73$\pm$0.36, 1.64$\pm$0.37, 2.16$\pm$0.36 and 2.29$\pm$0.38 cm respectively. Variations in the size of genitalia due to stages of estrous cycle were non-significant. The size of genitalia measured by palpation per rectum was significantly higher (p<0.05) than by ultrasonography. However, there was linear positive correlation (r=+0.87) in the measurements by the two techniques. The ultrasonographic characteristics of tubular genitalia revealed different echogenic gray shades around the nonechogenic (black) central area of lumen depending upon the stage of cycle. The ovarian stroma appeared as hyperechoic (white) area with nonechogenic (black) follicle. The corpus luteum (CL) exhibited different echogenic texture viz. grayish black, grayish granular and grayish white at met estrus, mid diestrus and late diestrus, respectively. Therefore, ltrasonography can be effectively employed to record the exact size and echotexture of the buffalo genitalia during different stages of estrous cycle.


  1. Palmer, E. and M. A. Driancourt. 1980. Use of ultrasonic echography in equine gynaecology. Theriogenology 13:203-216.
  2. Pathiraja, N., E. O. Oyedipe, A. A. Vohjr and P. M. Dawuda. 1986. Accuracy of rectal palpation in the diagnosis of corpora lutea in Zebu cows. Br. Vet. J. 142:467.
  3. Pawsche, C. H., K. B. C. Appa Rao and S. M. Totey. 1994. Ultrasonographic imaging to monitor early pregnancy and embryonic development in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 41:697-709.
  4. Roberts, S. J. 1971. Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. Edwards Bros, Inc. Ann. Arbor., Mich. pp. 343-390.
  5. Takkar, O. P., F. S. Chauhan, M. S. Tiwana and M. Singh. 1979. Breeding behaviour of buffalo cows. Indian Vet. J. 56:168-172.
  6. Sane, C. R., A. S. Kaikini, B. R. Deshpande, G. S. Koranne and V. G. Desai. 1965. Study of biometry of genitalia of Jaffri buffalo cows (Bos bubalis). Indian Vet. J. 42:591-596.
  7. Singh, S., M. L. Bansal, T. P. Singh and R. Kumar. 1991. Statistical method for research workers. Kalyani publishers, Ludhiana, India.
  8. Dobson, H. and M. Kamonpatana. 1986. A review of female cattle reproducion with special reference to a comparison between buffaloes, cows and Zebu. J. Reprod. Fertil. 77:1-36.
  9. Kahn, W. and W. Leidl. 1986. Diagnosis of ovarian function in the cow by sonography. Tierarztliche Umschau 41:3-12.
  10. Pieterse, M. C., M. A. M. Taverne, Th. A. M. Kruip and A. H. Willemse. 1990. Detection of corpora lutea and follicles in cows: A comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and rectal palpation. Vet. Rec. 126:552-554.
  11. Manik, R. S., S. K Singla, P. Palta and M. L. Madan. 1998. Real time ultrasound evaluation of changes in follicular populations during estrous cycle in buffalo. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 68:1157-1159.
  12. Agarwal, S. K. and O. S. Tomer. 1998. Reproductive Techniques in Buffalo. Bytes and Bytes, Barielly, India. pp. 6-24.
  13. Hanzen, C. H., M. Pieterse, O. Scenczi and M. Drost. 2000. Relative accuracy of the identification of ovarian structures in the cow by ultrasonography and palpation per rectum. The Vet. J. 159:161-170.
  14. Battocchio, M., G. Gabai, A. Mollo, M. C. Veronesi, F. Soldano, G. Bono and F. Cairoli. 1999. Agreement between ultrasonographic classification of the corpus luteum and plasma progesterone concentration in dairy cows. Theriogenology 51:1059-1069.
  15. Gupta, S. P. 2000. Statistical methods. Sultan chand and sons, New Delhi, India.
  16. Pierson, R. A. and O. J. Ginther. 1984. Ultrasonography of the bovine ovary. Theriogenology 21:495-504.
  17. Settergren, I. 1980. Physical examination of the bovine female reproductive system. In: Current therapy in theriogenology. Morrow D A, (Ed. W. B. Saunders) Company, Philladelphia.
  18. Zemjanis, R. 1970. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques in Animal Reproduction. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, USA. pp. 15-20.
  19. Garverick, H. A., R. E. Erb and G. D. Niswinder. 1971. Reproductive steroids in the bovine. III. Changes during the estrous cycle. J. Anim. Sci. 32:946-956.
  20. Sane, C. R., A. S. Kaikini, B. R. Deshpande, G. S. Koranne and V. G. Desai. 1964. Study of biometry of genitalia of the Murrah buffalo cows (Bos bubalis). Indian Vet. J. 41:653-663.
  21. Kitiyanant, Y., C. Tocharus, M. Areekijseree and K. Pavasuthipaisit. 1995. Swamp buffalo oocytes from transvaginal ultrasound guided aspiration fertilized and cocultured in vitro with bovine oviductal epithelial cells. Theriogenology 43:250.
  22. Bhalla, R. C., D. P. S. Sengar and G. C. Jain. 1964. Biometry of genital tract of buffalo cows. Indian J. Vet. Sci. 41:327-331.
  23. Reeves, J. J., N. W. Rantanen and M. Hauser. 1984. Transrectal real time ultrasound scanning of the cow reproductive tract. Theriogenology 21:485- 494.
  24. Tailor, S. P., L. S. Jain, H. K. Gupta, J. S. Bhatia and B. K. Tiwari. 1990. Oestrus and conception rates in buffaloes under village conditions. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 60:956-957.
  25. Pierson, R. A. and O. J. Ginther. 1987. Ultrasonographic appearance of the bovine uterus during the estrous cycle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 190:995-1001.
  26. Douthwaite, R. and H. Dobson. 2000. Comparison of different methods of diagnosis of cystic ovarian disease in cattle and an assessment of its treatment with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device. Vet. Rec. 147:355-357.
  27. Ott, R. S., K. N. Bretzlaff and J. E. Hixon. 1986. Comparison of palpable corpora lutea with serum progesterone concentrations in cows. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 188:1417-1419.
  28. Ribadu, A. Y., W. R. Ward and H. Dobson. 1994. Comparative evaluation of ovarian structures in cattle by palpation per rectum, ultrasonography and plasma progesterone concentration. Vet. Rec. 135:452-457.
  29. Hafez, E. S. E. and B. Hafez. 2000. Reproduction in farm animals. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, USA. pp. 158-171.
  30. Pierson, R. A. and O. J. Ginther. 1988. Ultrasonic imaging of the ovaries and uterus in cattle. Theriogenology 29:21-37.
  31. Baruselli, P. S., R. G. Mucciolo, J. A. Visintin, W. G. Viana, R. P. rruda, E. H. Madureira and J. R. Oliveira Molero Filho. 1997. varian follicular dynamics during estrous cycle in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 47:1531-1547.
  32. Makek, Z., M. Herak, M. Cergoli, G. I. Barac and D. Rudan. 1996. A comparison of rectal palpation and ultrasonography for the evaluation of superovulatory response in beef heifers. Acta. Vet. Hung. 44:467-476.
  33. Luktuke, S. N. and S. P. Rao. 1962. Studies on biometry of the reproductive tract of the buffalo-cow. Indian J. Vet. Sci. 32:106-111.
  34. Parkale, D. D. and V. B. Hukeri. 1989. Study of biometry of buffalo (Bos bubalis) ovaries. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 10:17-19.