- Volume 17 Issue 10
DOI QR Code
Comparison of Different Alkali Treatment of Bagasse and Rice Straw
- Suksombat, W. (School of Animal Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural echnology, Suranaree University of Technology)
- Received : 2004.02.04
- Accepted : 2004.06.04
- Published : 2004.10.01
A study was conducted to determine the effect of different alkali treatments on changes in chemical composition and on degradability of bagasse and rice straw. This study divided into 2 experiments, the first with bagasse and the second with rice straw. Each experiment comprised 9 treatments which included: untreated control; 3% NaOH; 6% NaOH; 3% urea; 6% urea; 3% NaOH/3% urea; 3% NaOH/6% urea; 6% NaOH/3% urea; 6% NaOH/6% urea. In both experiments, crude protein contents were increased from 2.0 to 12.5 units for bagasse and 3.1 to 13.7 units for rice straw by urea treatments. Ash contents of the treated bagasse and rice straw were increased over the untreated control (1.5-9.7 units for bagasse; 4.2-8.8 units for rice straw). The effects on ether extract, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of the treated bagasse and rice straw were variable. Nylon bag degradability of dry matter and crude fiber were increased by treatments applying NaOH and NaOH plus urea but not urea alone. In contrast, the egradability of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were reduced compared with the untreated control. From these degradability studies, it can be concluded that the most efficient treatments of bagasse were those treatments with 6% NaOH, followed by treatments with 6% NaOH plus 3% or 6% urea and 3% NaOH plus 3% or 6% urea, respectively. However, when comparison was made on the cost of chemical used to treat the agricultural by-products, particularly in case of rice straw, 3-6% urea would be appropriate.
Supported by : Suranaree University's Dairy Farm
- AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Virginia, USA.
- Cabello, A. B. 1994. Sugar cane by-products for animal feeding: Research and development results at the Cuban Research Institute of Sugar Cane By-products (ICIDA). pp. 14-27. In: Utilization of Sugar By-products for Animal Feeding. International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists.
- Doyle, P. T., C. Devendra and G. R. Pearce. 1986. Rice straw as a Feed for Ruminants. International Development Program of Australian Universities and Colleges. Canberra, Australia.
- Fadel Elseed, A. M. A., J. Sekine, M. Hishinuma and K. Hamana. 2003. Effects of ammonia, urea plus calcium hydroxide and animal urine treatments on chemical composition and in sacco degradability of rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(3):368-373.
- Fiest, W. C., A. J. Baker and H. Tarkow. 1970. Alkali requirements for improving digestibility of hardwoods by rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 30:832-835.
- Ibrahim, M. N. M. 1983. Physical, chemical, physio-chemical and biological treatments of crop residues. pp. 53-68. In: The Utilization of Fibrous Agricultural Residues. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
- Jayasuriya, M. C. N. and G. R. Pearce. 1983. The effect of urease enzyme on treatment time and the nutritive value of straw treated with ammonia as urea. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 8:271-281.
- Linberg, J. E. 1985. Estimation of rumen degradability of feed proteins with the in sacco technique and various in vitro methods: A review. Acta Agri. Scand. (Suppl.) 25:64-97.
- Orden, E. R., K. Yamaki, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2000. Feeding value of ammoniated rice straw supplemented with rice bran in sheep. II. In situ rumen degradation of untreated and ammonia treated rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13(7):906-912.
- Pannu, M. S., J. R. Kaushal, M. Wadhwa and M. P. S. Bakshi. 2002. In sacco degradability of dietary combinations formulated with naturally fermented wheat straw as sole roughage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(9):1307-1311.
- Rangnekar, D. V. 1988. Availability and intensive utilization of sugar cane by-products. In: Non-conventional Feed Resources and Fibrous Agricultural Residues: Strategies for Expanded Utilization. International Development Research Center, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. pp. 76-93.
- SAS Institute Inc. 1985. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, 5th Ed., Cary, NC.
- Steel, R. D. G. and J. H. Torrie. 1986. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 5th Ed. McGraw-Hill International Book Company, New York.
- SunstOl, F. 1984. Ammonia treatment of straw: methods for treatment and feeding experience in Norway. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:173-187.
- Wanapat, M., S. Praserdsuk, S. Chantai and A. Sivapraphagon. 1982. Effects on rice straw utilization of treatment with ammonia released from urea and/or supplementation with cassava chips. In: The Utilization of Fibrous Agricultural Residues as Animal Feeds (Ed. P. T. Doyle). University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria. pp. 95-101.
- Wanapat, M., F. SunstØl and T. H. Garmo. 1985. Comparison of different alkali treatments applied on barley straw. In: The Utilization of Fibrous Agricultural Residues as Animal Feeds (Ed. P. T. Doyle). University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria. pp. 103-109.
- Acid Dye Biodegradation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Immobilized with Polyethyleneimine-Treated Sugarcane Bagasse vol.224, pp.1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1391-2
- FT-IR Analysis of Acid Black Dye Biodegradation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Immobilized with Treated Sugarcane Bagasse vol.224, pp.7, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-013-1607-0
- HO vol.28, pp.8, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1021/ef500891g
- Interaction of rumen bacteria as assumed by colonization patterns on untreated and alkali-treated rice straw vol.85, pp.5, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12176
- vol.5, pp.2167-8359, 2017, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3867
- Synchronous and rapid preparation of lignin nanoparticles and carbon quantum dots from natural lignocellulose vol.20, pp.15, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1039/C8GC00744F