- Volume 17 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Influence of Supplemental Enzymes, Yeast Culture and Effective Micro-organism Culture on Gut Micro-flora and Nutrient Digestion at Different Parts of the Rabbit Digestive Tract
- Samarasinghe, K. (Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya) ;
- Shanmuganathan, T. (Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya) ;
- Silva, K.F.S.T. (Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya) ;
- Wenk, C. (Institute of Animal Science, ETH-Z)
- Received : 2003.01.20
- Accepted : 2003.12.31
- Published : 2004.06.01
An experiment of 10 weeks duration was carried out to study the influence of supplemental effective microorganism (EM) culture, yeast culture and enzymes on nutrient digestibility and gut microflora in rabbit gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Twenty four eight to nine weeks old, New Zealand White rabbits were allotted to four dietary treatments; a basal (control) feed, basal feed supplemented with either EM (1%), yeast culture or enzymes (400 ppm). Nutrient flow in digesta and their digestibility at ileum, caecum, colon and in the total tract as well as gut microflora distribution were studied. Feed dry matter was diluted from 92% to about 14% up to the ileum and about 95% of this water was reabsorbed by the colonic rectal segment followed by caecum (25%). EM and yeast improved protein digestibility at a lower rate than enzymes. Ileal, caecal, colonic and total tract digestibility of crude protein with enzymes were higher by 10.8, 9.4, 11.3 and 10.7%, respectively, as compared to the control. Yeast and enzymes increased crude fiber digestibility at ileum, caecum, colon and in the total tract by 8.5, 9.6, 9.0 and 8.3%, respectively, while EM improved them at a lower rate. Irrespective of treatments, total tract digestibility of crude protein (0.698-0.773) and fiber (0.169-0.183) were greater (p<0.05) than the ileal digestibility. Even though a post-caecal protein digestibility was observed, fiber digestion seemed to be completed in the caecum especially with yeast and enzymes. High precaecal digestibility of crude fiber (97%) and protein (95%) were observed even without additives probably due to caecotrophy. EM and yeast culture promoted the growth of lactic acid bacteria especially in the caecum but they did not influence gut yeast and mould. Present findings reveal that even though rabbits digest nutrients efficiently through hind gut fermentation, they can be further enhanced by EM, yeast and enzymes. Of the three additives tested, enzymes found to be the best.
- Aderibigbe, A. O. and P. R. Cheeke. 1993. Comparison of in vitro digestion of feed ingredients by rabbit cecal and bovine rumen fluids. An. Feed Sci. and Technol. 41:4, 329-339.
- Aderibigbe, A. O., P. R. Cheeke and N. M. Patton. 1992a. In vitro rumen and rabbit cecum digestibilities. I. Effects of probiotics and incubation time. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 15:B, 947-957.
- Aderibigbe, A. O., P. R. Cheeke and N. M. Patton. 1992b. In vitro rumen and rabbit cecum digestibilities. II. Effects of extended incubation time. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 15:B, 1241-1248.
- Aderibigbe, A. O., P. R. Cheeke and N. M. Patton. 1992c. In vitro rumen and rabbit cecum digestibilities. IV. Selected rabbit diets. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 15:B, 1255-1262.
- Adjiri, D., M. Bouillier Oudot, F. Lebas and M. Candau. 1992. Simulation in vitro des fermentations caecales du lapin en fermenteur a flux semi-continu. 2. Effet de la nature de l'inoculum. Reprod. Nutr. Development, 32(4):361-364.
- Anuar, A. H., H. Sharifuddin, A. H. Sahabuddin and A. R. Zahara. 1993. Effectiveness of Effective Micro organisms (EM) on maize grown on sandy tintailings. Proc. 2nd Conference on EM, Saraburi, Thailand, pp. 1-6.
- AOAC. 1985. Official methods of analysis. 14th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Arlington, Washington, DC.
- Blas, C. de, J. Garcia and S. Alday. 1991. Effect of dietary inclusion of a probiotic (Paciflor) on performance of growing rabbits. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 14:148-150.
- Burn, D. M. 1986. The digestive strategy and efficiency of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus. Comparative Biochem. Physiol. 85(1):139-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(86)90475-5
- Blaut, M. 2002. Relationship of prebiotics and food to intestinal microflora. European J. Nutr. 41(1)1-16.
- Callaway, E. S. and S. A. Martin. 1997. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on rumial bacteria that utilise lactate and digest cellulose. J. Dairy Sci. 80(9)2035-2044.
- Campbell, P. 1989. Nutritional value of Barley fed for broiler chicken supplemented with enzymes. Br. Poult. Sci. 41:35-37.
- Cheeke, P. R. 1987. Rabbit Feeding and Nutrition. In: (Ed. T. J. Cunba). A Series of Monograph and Treatises. Interstate Printers and Publisher Inc, Danville, Illinois. pp. 15-36.
- Farrell, D. J., E. Martin and D. J. Farrell. 1993. Recent advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia-1993. University of New England, Australia. pp. 266-276.
- Feighner, S. D. and M. P. Dashkevicz. 1988. Effect of dietary carbohydrates on bacterial cholyltaurine hydrolase in poultry intestinal homogenates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 54:334-342.
- Fekete, S. 1988. A review of rabbit nutrition and disease research in Hungary. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 11(3):121-135.
- Fengler, A. I. and R. R. Marquardt. 1988. Water-soluble pentosans from rye. In: Effects on rate of dialysis and retention of nutrients by the chick. Cereal Chemistry 65:298-302.
- Fraga, M. J. 1998. Protein digestion. In: (Ed. C. de Blas and J. Wisemans). The nutrition of the rabbit. University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 39-54.
- Gidenne, T., R. Carabano, J. Garcia and C. de Blas. 1998. Fiber digestion. In: (Ed. C. de Blas and J. Wiseman). The Nutrition of the Rabbit. University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 69-88.
- Glade, M. J. 1991. Dietary yeast culture supplementation of mares during late gestation and early lactation. Effects on dietary nutrient digestibilities and faecal nitrogen partitioning. Equine Vet. Sci. 11:10-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(06)81240-2
- Kocher, A., M. Choct, M. D. Porter and J. Broz. 2002. Effects of feed enzymes on nutritive value of soybean meal fed to broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 43(1):54-63.
- Kopinski, J. S. and S. Willis. 1996. Recent advances in utilization of sorghum for growing pigs. Proc. 3rd Australian sorghum conference. Tamworth, 20-22 February 1996. pp. 235-250.
- Maertens, L. and G. de Groote. 1992. Effect of a dietary supplementation of live yeast on the zootechnical performance of does and weanling rabbits. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 15:1079-1086.
- Marty, J. and M. Vernay. 1984. Absorption and metabolism of the volatile fatty acids in the hind gut of the rabbit. Br. J. Nutr. 52(2)265-277.
- Mc Cartney, E. 1994. Bacillus toyoi. Aplicacion en conejos de carne yen conejas reproductoras, Boletin de Cunicultura. 17:1-6.
- NRC. 1977. Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits (2nd Ed.). National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
- Owusu Asiedu, A., S. K. Baidoo and C. M. Nyachoti. 2002. Effect of heat processing on nutrient digestibility in pea and supplementing amylase and xylanase to raw, extruded or micronized pea-based diets on performance of early weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 82(3):367-374.
- Pack, M. 1996. Nutritional impact of feed enzymes in broiler diets. Zootechnica Int. 19(12):82-85.
- Petterson, D. and P. Aman. 1989. Enzyme supplementation of a poultry diet containing rye and wheat. Br. J. Nutr. 62:139-149.
- Prabucki, A. L., A. Rennerova, H. Voghtman, C. Wenk and A. Schurch. 1975. Die Verwendung von 4N HCl-unloeslicherAsche als Indikator zur Bestimung der Verdaulichkeit. Physiologie der Verdaung Misc. papers 11, andbauwhogeschool, Wageningen, NL.
- Raynolds, S. E. and K. Bellward. 1989. Water balance in Manduca sextra caterpillars: water recycling from the rectum. J. Experimental Biol. 141:33-45.
- Rostagno, H. S., A. A. Tejedor, L. F. T. Albino and J. H. V. Silva. 2000. Enzyme supplementation of corn/soybean meal diets improves ileal digestibility of nutrients in broiler chicks. In: (Ed. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques). Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Proc. Alltech’s 16th Annual Symp. Nottingham Univ.press, Nottingham. pp. 175-182.
- Salih, M. E., H. L. Classen and G. L. Campbell. 1991. Response of chickens fed hull-less barley to dietary beta-glucanases at different ages. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 33:139-149.
- Samarasinghe, K. and C. Wenk. 1993. Role of supplemental enzymes at low and conventional levels of protein in broiler diets based on cassava and maize. In: (Ed. C. Wenk and M. Boessinger). Proc. 1st Symp. Enzymes in Animal Nutrition. Switzerland. pp. 78-81.
- SAS. 1990. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina, USA.
- Scott, T. A. and F. Boldaji. 1997. Comparision of inert markers [Chromic oxide or insoluble ash (CeliteTM)] for determining apparent metabolizable energy of wheat- or barley-based broiler diets with or without enzymes. Poult. Sci. 76:594-598.
- Straw, T. E. 1988. Bacteria of the rabbit gut and their role in the health of the rabbit. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 11(3):142-150.