A Comparison Study on Severe Accident Risks Between PWR and PHWR Plants

가압 경수로 및 가압중수로형 원자력 발전소의 중대사고 리스크 비교 평가

  • Published : 2004.09.30


The health effects resulting from severe accidents of typical 1,000MWe KSNP(Korea Standard Nuclear Plant) PWR and typical 600MWe CANDU(CANada Deuterium Uranium) plants were estimated and compared. The population distribution of the site extending to 80km for both site were considered. The releaese fraction for various source term categories(STC) and core inventories were used in the estimation of the health effects risks by using the MACCS2(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System2) code. Individuals are assumed to evacuate beyond 16km from the site. The health effects considered in this comparative study are early and cancer fatality risk, and the results are presented as CCDF(Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function) curves considering the occurrence probability of each STC's. According to the results, the early and cancer fatality risks of PHWR plants we lower than those of PWR plants. This is attributed the fact that the amount of radioactive mateials that released to the atmosphere resulting from the postulated severe accidents of PHWR plants are smaller than that of PWR plants. And, the dominating initiating event of STC that shows maximum early and cancer fatality risk is SGTR(Steam Generator Tube Rupture) for both plants. Therefore, the appropriated actions must be taken to reduce the occurrence probability and the amounts of radioactive materials released to the environment in order to protect the public for both PWR and PHWR plants.


  1. 이상곤, '전환기의 에너지 정책과 원자력산업의 미래,'17차 KAIF/KNS 연차대회(2002)
  2. Rainer Friedrich et al., 'ExternE, Externalities of Energy,' European Commission(1995)
  3. D. I. Chanin, and Mary Young, 'Code Manual for MACCS2, Volume 1, User's Guide, SAND97-0594, Sandia National Laboratories(1997)
  4. 황석원, 제무성, '한국 표준형 원전의 중대사고시 MACCS 코드를 이용한 위험성평가,'방사선방어학회지,28(3) 189-197(2003)
  5. 한국전력공사, 'UIchin Units 3&4 Final Probabilistic Safety Assessment Report,'(1997)
  6. 한국수력원자력(주), 월성 1호기 확률론적 안전성 평가(2003)
  7. A. G. Croff, 'A User's Manual for the ORIGEN2 Computer Code: ORNL/TM-7175,' Oak Ridge National Laboratory(1980)
  8. 정종태, 하재주, '기상자료가 인체 건강에 미치는 영향 평가,' 한국 원자력연구소, KAERI/TR-1230/99(1999)
  9. USNRC, 'Severc accident risks: an assessment of five nuclear power plants,' NUREG-1150(1990)
  10. USNRC, 'Reactor Safety Study Appendix VI: Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences, WASH-1400,' NUREG 75/014, USER(1975)
  11. Daniel J. Alpert, David I. Chanin, and Lynn T.Ritchie, 'Relative Importance of Individual Elements to Reactor Accident Consequences Assuming Equal Release Fractions,' NUREG/CR-4467, USNRC(1986)
  12. S. Hirshberg, G. Spiekerman, R. Dones, P. Burgherr, 'Comparison of Severe Accident Risks in Fossil, Nuclear, and Hydro Electricity Generation,' Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232, Switzerland(2000)