- Volume 45 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Velvet Antler Production in Red Deer(Cervus elaphus)
사료의 단백질 수준이 Red Deer(Cervus elaphus)의 녹용생산에 미치는 영향
- Jeon, B.T. (Korea nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University) ;
- Moon, S.H. (Korea nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University) ;
- Hudson, R.J. (Department of Renewable resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Forest and Home Economics, University of Alberta, Edmonton)
- Published : 2003.08.30
Three dietary treatments were compared over two years to determine the effects of dietary protein levels and feeding patterns on velvet production in red deer (Cervus elaphus). The LL group received a 13% protein diet whereas the HH group received a 19% protein diet. The LH group switched from the low to high protein diet at the time of antler casting. Significant relationships were found between velvet production and the girth and length of main beam (p<0.01), daily growth rate of velvet (p<0.01), body weight at cutting time (p<0.05 in 1998 and p<0.01 in 1999), date of casting (p<0.01), and body weight and velvet production of the previous year (p<0.05 in 1998 and p<0.01 in 1999). Different levels of protein in diets in this study did not show statistically significant different effects in general. The girth of velvet, summed for top, middle and bottom of the main beam, tended to be thickest in HH for two years and thinnest in LL for 1998 and in LH for 1999. The main beam tended to be longest in HH at 46.3cm in 1998 and 45.2cm in 1999 and shortest in LH at 39.9cm in 1998 and 41.5cm in 1999. Velvet fresh weight tended to be highest in HH at 2,600
Protein level;Feeding time;Red deer;Velvet antler
- Blaxter, K. L., Kay, R. N. B. and Sharman, G. A. M. 1974. Farming the red deer. The 1st report of an investigation by the Rowett Res. Inst. and the Hill Farming Res. Org. Dept. Agric. and Fisheries for Scotland, Edinburgh. pp. 42-47.
- Cowan, R. L. and Long, T. A. 1962. Studies on antler growth and nutrition of white-tailed deer. Paper No. 107 Pennsylvania Cooperative Wildl. Res. Unit. pp. 54-61.
- Fennessy, P. F. 1989. Velvet antler production: Feeding and breeding. In: Proc. 14th Annual New Zealand Deer Farmers’ Assoc. Conf. pp. 15-17.
- Fennessy, P. F. 1995. Deer and deer farming-The New Zealand Experience. In: Biotechnology in the feed industry. T.P. Lyons and K.A. Jacques (ed). Proc. Alltech’s 11th Annual Symp. Nottingham Univ. Press. pp. 157-173.
- French, C. E., McEwen, L. C., Magruder, N. D., Ingram, R. H. and Swift, R. W. 1956. Nutrient requirements for growth and antler development in the white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 20:221-232. https://doi.org/10.2307/3796954
- Geist, V. 1986. Super antler and pre-World War II European research. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14: 91-94.
- Haigh, J. C. and Hudson, R. J. 1993. Farming wapiti and red deer. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri. pp. 149-153.
- Hyvarinen, H., Kay, R. N. B. and Hamilton, W. J. 1977. Variation in the weight, specific gravity, and composition of the antlers of red deer. Br. J. Nutr. 28:301-311.
- Liang, F., Wang, Q. and Wen, T. 1993. Deer feeding for velvet production. The 4th ARRC International Symposium. pp. 115-122.
- McEwen, L. C., French, C. E., Magruder, N. D., Swift, R. W. and Ingram, R. H. 1957. Nutrient requirements of the white-tailed deer. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. Conf. 22:119-132.
- Moore, G. E., Littlejohn, R. P. and Cowie, G. M. 1988. Liveweights, growth rates and antler measurements of farmed deer stags and their usefulness as predictors of performance. NZ J. Agric. Res. 31:285-292. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1988.10423417
- Muir, P. D. and Sykes, A. R. 1988. Effect of winter nutrition on antler development in red deer(Cervus, elaphus): a field study. NZ J. Agric. Res. 31:145-150. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1988.10417938
- Muir, P. D., Skyes, A. R. and Barrell, G. K. 1988. Growth and mineralisation of antlers in red deer(Cervus, elaphus). NZ J. Agric. Res. 30:305-315.
- Pearse, A. J. and Fennessy, P. F. 1991. Optimal velvet antler production in wapiti and red deer. In: Wildlife production: Conservation and sustainable development. L. A. Renecker and R. J. Hudson (ed). Agric. For. Exper. Stat. Univ. Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska. pp. 548-556.
- SAS. 1995. SAS user’s guide. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC
- Suttie, J. M. and Kay, R. N. B. 1983. The influence of nutrition and photoperiod on the growth of antlers of young red deer. In: Antler development in Cervidae. R.D. Brown (ed). Proc. 1st Intern. Symp. Caesar Kleberg Wildl. Res. Inst. Colleg. Agric. Texas A & I Univ. Kingsville, Texas. pp. 61-71.
- Ullrey, D. E. 1983. Nutrition and antler development in white-tailed deer. In: Antler development in Cervidae. R. D. Brown (ed). Proc. 1st Intern. Symp. Caesar Kleberg Wildl. Res. Inst. Colleg. Agric. Texas A & I Univ. Kingsville, Texas. pp. 49-59.
- Wolfe, G. 1983. The relationship between age and antler development in wapiti. In: Antler development in Cervidae. R. D. Brown(ed). Proc. 1st Intern. Symp. Caesar Kleberg Wildl. Res. Inst. Colleg. Agric. Texas A & I Univ. Kingsville, Texas. pp. 29-36.
- Zhou, S. and Wu, S. 1979. A preliminary study of quantitative and character inheritance of antlers. Acta Genetica Sinica 6:434-440.