- Volume 5 Issue 3
Proline is known as an osmoprotectant accumulating in response to salt and dehydration stresses. An increased level of proline is achieved by either an induced synthesis or a reduced degradation of proline. In an attempt to increase salt tolerance in carrot, a P5CS gene from mothbean was introduced via an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting carrot cells and the regenerated plants containing the transgene showed increased levels of proline compared to nontransgenics. The transgenic cell line, Pj2 showed about 6 times increased degree of tolerance determined by relative growth after a treatment in 250 mM NaCl. In facts, due to the retarded growth shown in non-saline condition, Pj2 cells grow only about 1.2 times better than nontransgenic control under salt stress condition. Taken together, it appears that a P5CS is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis and the increased accumulation of proline by overexpression of the enzyme is enough to enhance tolerance to salt stress in carrot.
- Plant Physiol v.120 Proline accumulation in development grapevine fruit occurs independently of change in levels of △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase mRNA or protein Anna,P.S.;Dean,J.N.;Peter,B.H.J.;Robyn,van,H.
- Cellular energy metabolism and its regulation Atkinson,D.E.
- Plant and Soil v.39 Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies Bates,L.S.;Walden,R.P.;Tear,I.D
- Plant J v.4 Proline biosynthesis and osmoregulation in plants Delauney,A.J.;Verma,D.P.S.
- Anne Rev Plant Physiol v.33 Metabolic response of mesophytic plants to water deficits Hanson,A.D.;Hitz,W.D.
- Plant Growth Regul v.21 Metabolic implications of stress-induced proline accumulation in plants Hare,P.D.;Cress,W.A.
- Plant Physiol v.122 Removal of feedback inhibition of △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase results in increased proline accumulation and protection of plants from osmotic stress hong,Z.;Lakkineni,K.;Zhang,Z.;Verma,D.P.S.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci USA v.89 A bifunctional enzyme(△¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase) catalyzes the first two steps in proline biosynthesis in plants Hu,C.A.;Delauney,A.J.;Verma,D.P.S.
- Plant Physiol v.108 Overexpression of △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase increases proline production and confers osmotolerance in transgenic plants Klshor,P.B.;Hong,K.Z.;Miao,G.H.;Hu,C.A.;Verma,D.P.S.
- Korean J Corp Sci v.48 Proline accumulation and P5CS(△¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase)gene expression in response to salt stress in Zoysiagrasses Lee,D.J.;Hwang,C.H.
- FEBS Lett v.461 Antisense suppression of proline degradation improves tolerance to freezing and salinity in Arobidopsis thaliana Nanjo,T.;Kobayashi,M.;Yoshiba,Y.;Kakubari,Y.;Yamaguchi-Shinozaki,K.;Shinozaki,K.
- Mol Gen Genet v.253 Reciprocal regulation of △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and proline dehydrogenase genes controls proline levels during and after osmotic stress in plants Peng,Z.;Lu,Q.;Verma,D.P.S.
- Plant Physiol v.91 Oxidation of proline and glutamate by mitochondria of the inflorescence of voodoo lily(Sauromatum guttatum) Skubatz,H.;Meeuse,B.J.D.;Bendich,A.J.
- pHYTOCHEMISITRY v.28 Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes Smirnoff,N.;Cumbes,Q.J.
- Plant Physiol v.120 Proline accumulation in developing grapevine fruit occurs independently of changes in the levels of △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase mRNA or protein Stines,A.D.;Naylor,D.J.;Hoj,P.B.;van Heeswijck,R.
- Science v.259 Stress protection of transgenic tobacco by production of the osmolyte mannitol Tarczynski,M.C.;Jensen,R.G.;Bohnert,H.J.
- Plant Physiol v.118 Comparative analysis of regulation of expression and structure of two evolutionarily divergent genes for △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase from tomato Tomomichi,F.;Maggio,A.;Mario,G.R.;Bressan,R.A.;Csonka,L.N.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci USA v.93 Environmental and developmental signals modulate proline homeostasis:Evidence for a negative transcriptional regulaotor Verbruggen,N.;Hua,X.J.;May,M.;Van Montagu,M.
- Biochem Genet v.26 Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in spinach:Genetic and biochemical characterization Weretilnyk,E.A.;Hanson,A.D.
- Plant Cell Cell singnaling during cold, drought, and salt stress Xiong,L.;Schumaker,K.S.;Zhu,J.K.
- Plant J v.7 Correlation between the induction of gene for △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and accumulation of proline in Arabidopsis thaliana under osmotic stress Yoshiba,Y.;Kiyosue,T.;Katagirl,T.;Ueda,H.;Mizoguchi,T.;Yamaguchi-Shinozaki,K.;Wada,K.;Harada,Y.;Shinozaki,K.
- Planta v.154 Proline synthesis in germinating pollen of petunia:Role of proline Zang,H.Q.;Crose,A.F.;Linskens,H.F.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci USA v.95 Eskimo1 mutants of Arabidopsis are constitutively freezing-tolerant Zhanguo,X.;Browse,J.
- Plant Sci v.139 Overexpression of a △¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene and analysis of tolerance to water-and salt-stress in transgenic rice Zhu,B.;Su,J.;Chang,M.;Verma,D.P.S.;Fan,Y.L.;Wu,R.