Effects of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds Based on Rice-straw and Six Forage Crops on the Productivity of Holstein Cows

청예사료작물과 볏짚 위주의 완전배합발효사료 급여가 Holstein 착유우의 생산성에 미치는 영향

  • Lee, H. J. (National Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, H. S. (National Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Ki, K. S. (National Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Jeong, H. Y. (National Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Baek, K. S. (National Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, J. S. (National Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Cho, K. K. (Jinju National University) ;
  • Cho, J. S. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, H. G. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Woo, J. H. (Section on Biophysical Chemistry, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Mental Health) ;
  • Choi, Y. J. (Section on Biophysical Chemistry, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Mental Health)
  • 이현준 (축산기술연구소) ;
  • 김현섭 (축산기술연구소) ;
  • 기광석 (축산기술연구소) ;
  • 정하연 (축산기술연구소) ;
  • 백광수 (축산기술연구소) ;
  • 김준식 (축산기술연구소) ;
  • 조광근 (진주산업대학교) ;
  • 조재순 (서울대학교 농생명공학부) ;
  • 이홍구 (서울대학교 농생명공학부) ;
  • 우정희 (미국 메릴랜드주 국립보건원 분자생물학연구실) ;
  • 최윤재 (미국 메릴랜드주 국립보건원 분자생물학연구실)
  • Published : 2003.02.28


This experiment was carried out to evaluate the value of total mixed fermentation feeds(TMFF) as completely mixed ration and to observe the effect of various kinds of TMFF on the palatability, feed intake, and milk performance in Holstein cows. The dry matter (DM) content of TMFF used in the experiment was 23.98-28.42% range, and CP, TDN, ADF and NDF were 16.2${\sim}$19.2%, 58.3-65.1%, 34.4-39.6% and 46.9${\sim}$49.9% levels, respectively. The relative feed value (RFV) in rape-, alfalfa-, grass-, oat-, corn-TMFF groups were 138.6, 133.9, 116.5, 111.8, 111.4 and 108.1, respectively. Among these groups, RFV of rye-TMFF group was lowest. Dry matter disappearance(DMD) showed 0.8${\sim}$.9% to the all kinds of TMFF groups. The pH was 3.89${\sim}$.87 and $NH_3$-N concentration was 6.93-8.66 mg/$d\ell$. The acetic acid concentration in the raw material of TMFF showed low level of 0.19${\sim}$0.57%, lactic acid showed high level of 1.17${\sim}$3.21% and butyric acid was very high as 0.03${\sim}$0.32%. Therefore, these results provide evidence that the quality of TMFF was not so bad. In the daily fresh matter intake on the alfalfa-, grass-, rape-, corn-, oats- and rye-TMFF were showed 62.85, 60.48, 58.04, 57.11, 54.61 and 45.74 kg respectively. All TMFF showed high palatability as daily dry matter intake of 1.95 to 2.90% by body weight of experimental cows. Body condition score(BCS) was gradually increased in during 60 days of the experiment term. Average daily gain(ADG) showed about 140.0${\sim}$326.7g. In alfalfa-TMFF group, the ADG was higher than in the other groups (p<0.05). Also, the increase in BCS was observed in grass-TMFF group (3.07 to 3.34) and rye-TMFF group was decreased in 3.07 to 3.34 (p<0.05). The milk yield appropriately showed a range of 16.16${\sim}$18.95 kg in all groups. Among these groups, alfalfa-TMFF group was highest(P<0.05). Average milk fat contents showed high levels of 4.06${\sim}$4.79% and the level was high in order of rape-, grass-, corn-, alfalfa-, rye- and oats-TMFF. Milk protein was highest in forage-TMFF and level of lactose in milk was approximately 4.56% in overall groups. Solid non fat(SNF) and total solid(TS) contents were 8.75% and 12.8%, respectively. However, milk composition was not significantly affected by TMFF.


TMFF;BCS;ADG;Daily milk yield;Milk composition;Palatability


  1. A.O.A.C. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. (15th ed.). Washington, D.C.
  2. Chaney, A. L. and Marbach, E. P. 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clinical Chemistry. 8:130.
  3. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometric. 11:1.
  4. Edmonson, A. J., Lean, I. J., Weaver, L. D., Farver, T. and Webster, G. 1989. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:68.
  5. Erwin, E. S., Maro, G. J. and Emery, E. M. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768.
  6. Holland, C., Kezar, W., Kautz, W. P., Lazowshi, E. J., Mahanna, W. C. and Reinhart, R. 1990. Pioneer forage manual : A nutritional Guide, Pioneer Hi-bred International, Inc. p. 1
  7. McCullough, M. E. 1986. Feeding dairy cows. Wisconsin. Fort Atkinson. P. 10.
  8. SAS. 1995. SAS/STAT Software for PC. Release 6.11, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  9. 강태홍, 차영호, 장윤환. 1980. 볏짚 사일리지 제조시험 Ⅰ${\sim}$Ⅱ. 한국축산학회지. 22(6):439.
  10. 고영두, 송도준. 1977. 한우에 대한 전분박강 silage 급여시험. 한국축산학회지. 19(5):370.
  11. 김준식, 야현준, 조윤연, 지설하, 하종규, 한인규. 1989. 암모니아 및 가성소다 처리 볏짚급여가 젖소의 산유능력에 미치는 영향. 한국낙농학회지. 11(2):65.
  12. 문양수, 하종규, 고종열, 한인규. 1990 볏짚의 사료가치 개선에 관한 연구 I. 한영사보. 14(3):84.
  13. 문태현, 1994. 볏짚의 화학적 처리가 볏짚의 표면구조위 변화. 반추위 미생물 부착 및 소화특성에 미치는 영향. 서울대학교 박사학위 논문.
  14. 신형태, 박윤창. 1980. 화학적처리에 의한 볏짚의사료가치 증진연구. 한국축산학회지. 22(1):51.
  15. 이남형, 김춘수, 육종륭. 1977 볏짚의 사료가치 증진에 관한 연구. 한국축산학회지. 19(5):363
  16. 하종규, 이성실, 문태현, 이기종, 송만강, 이상철. 1993. 화학적처리에 의한 볏짚의 사료가치 증진에 관한 연구 I-IV. 한국영양사료학회지. 17(4) 224.