Performance Evaluation of Nonkeyword Modeling and Postprocessing for Vocabulary-independent Keyword Spotting

가변어휘 핵심어 검출을 위한 비핵심어 모델링 및 후처리 성능평가

  • Published : 2003.09.01


In this paper, we develop a keyword spotting system using vocabulary-independent speech recognition technique, and investigate several non-keyword modeling and post-processing methods to improve its performance. In order to model non-keyword speech segments, monophone clustering and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) are considered. We employ likelihood ratio scoring method for the post-processing schemes to verify the recognition results, and filler models, anti-subword models and N-best decoding results are considered as an alternative hypothesis for likelihood ratio scoring. We also examine different methods to construct anti-subword models. We evaluate the performance of our system on the automatic telephone exchange service task. The results show that GMM-based non-keyword modeling yields better performance than that using monophone clustering. According to the post-processing experiment, the method using anti-keyword model based on Kullback-Leibler distance and N-best decoding method show better performance than other methods, and we could reduce more than 50% of keyword recognition errors with keyword rejection rate of 5%.