Effects of Canopy and Settlement Density on the Performance of the Brown Seaweed Fucus serratus Germlings

  • Choi, Han-Gil (Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Basic Natural Sciences, Wonkwang University)
  • Published : 2003.12.01


Effects of the settlement density of germlings and canopy on settled germlings of Fucus serratus were investigated on the rocky shore of the Isle of Man. The survival of transplanted germlings was mainly determined by parent canopy rather than by initial settlement density of germlings. However, germling growth was greater at low density than at high density and enhanced by canopy removal. Recruitment by natural propagules was stimulated at high settlement density and maximal recruits occurred on caged slides under the canopy. On the experimental slides, tiny snails and sedimentation were ,found. The number of snails was positively related with the settlement density of germ lings indicating that they fed the germlings. Sedimentation and snail number were greater with canopy removal treatments than in canopy intact ones. These indicate that ,canopy sweeping gives benefits to germlings by removing sediment from substrata and protecting them from herbivores. In conclusion, the survival of settled F. serratus germlings is mainly determined by canopy sweeping and their growth is retarded in the presence of a canopy and at high settlement density.


  1. Andrew NL and Viejo RM (1998) Effects of wave exposure and intraspecific density on the growth and survivorship of Sargassum muticum (Sargassaceae: Phaeophyta). Eur J Phycol 33: 251-258 https://doi.org/10.1080/09670269810001736753
  2. Ang PO Jr and DeWreede RE (1992) Density-dependence in a population of Fucus distichus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 90: 169-181 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps090169
  3. Brawley SH and Johnson LE (1991) Survival of fucoid embryos in the intertidal zone depends upon developmental stage and microhabitat. J. Phycol 27: 179-186 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1991.00179.x
  4. Bullock JM, Mortimer AM, and Begon M (1994) The effect of clipping on interclonal competition in the grass Holcus lanatusa response surface analysis. J Ecol 82: 259-270 https://doi.org/10.2307/2261294
  5. Chapman ARO (1990) Effects of grazing, canopy cover and substratum type on the abundance of common species of seaweeds inhabiting littoral fringe tide pools. Bot Mar 33: 319-326 https://doi.org/10.1515/botm.1990.33.4.319
  6. Chapman ARO (1995) Functional ecology of fucoid algae: twenty-three years of progress. Phycologia 34: 1-32 https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-34-1-1.1
  7. Creed JC, Norton TA, and Harding SP (1996a) The development of size structure in a young Fucus serratus population. Eur J Phycol 31: 203-209 https://doi.org/10.1080/09670269600651391
  8. Creed JC, Norton TA, and Kain JM (1996b) Are neighbours harmful or helpful in Fucus vesiculosus populations? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 133: 191-201 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps133191
  9. Creed JC, Norton TA, and Kain JM (1997) Intraspecific competition in Fucus serratus germlings: the interaction of light, nutrients and density. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 212: 211-223 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(96)02748-7
  10. Dayton PK, Currie V, Gerrodette T, Keller BD, Rosenthal R and Ven Tresca D (1984) Patch dynamics and stability of some California communities. Ecol Monogr 54: 253-289 https://doi.org/10.2307/1942498
  11. Deysher L and Norton TA (1982) Dispersal and colonization in Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 56: 179-195
  12. Duggins DO (1980) Kelp beds and sea otters: an experimental approach. Ecology 61: 447-453 https://doi.org/10.2307/1937405
  13. Figueiredo MA de O, Kain JM, and Norton TA (1996) Biotic interactions in the colonization of crustose coralline algae by epiphytes. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 199: 303-318 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(96)00018-4
  14. Figueiredo MAdeO, Norton TA, and Kain JM (1997) Settlement and survival of epiphytes on two intertidal crustose coralline alga. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 213: 247-260 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(96)02766-9
  15. Fletcher RL and Callow ME (1992) The settlement, attachment and establishment of marine algal spores. Br Phycol J 27: 303-329 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071619200650281
  16. Gerard VA and Mann KH (1979) Growth and production of Laminaria longicruris (Phaeophyta) populations exposed to different intensities of water movement. J Phycol 15: 33-41 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1979.00033.x
  17. Hruby T and Norton TA (1979) Algal colonization on rocky shores in the Firth of Clyde. J Ecol 67: 65-77 https://doi.org/10.2307/2259337
  18. Jenkins SR, Hawkins SJ, and Norton TA (1999) Interaction between a fucoid canopy and limpet grazing in structuring a low shore intertidal community. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 233: 41-63 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(98)00128-2
  19. Johnson LE (1994) Enhanced settlement on microtopographical high points by the intertidal red alga Halosaccion glandiforme. Limnol Oceanogr 39: 1893-1902 https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1994.39.8.1893
  20. Kendrick GA (1994) Effects of propagule settlement density and adult canopy on survival of recruits of Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae: Phaeophyta). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 103: 129-140 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps103129
  21. Kendrick GA and Walker DI (1991) Dispersal distance for propagules of Sargassum spinuligerum (Sargassaceae: Phaeophyta) measured directly by vital staining and venturi suction sampling. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 79: 133-138 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps079133
  22. Knight M and Parke M (1950) A biological study of Fucus vesiculosus L. and F. serratus L. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 29: 439-514 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400055454
  23. Law R and Watkinson AR (1987) Response surface analysis of two species competition: an experiment on Phleum arenarium and Vulpia fasciculata. J Ecol 75: 871-886 https://doi.org/10.2307/2260211
  24. Lubchenco J (1983) Littorina and Fucus: effects of herbivores, substratum heterogeneity and plant escapes during succession. Ecology 64: 1116-1123 https://doi.org/10.2307/1937822
  25. Lubchenco J (1986) Relative importance of competition and predation: early colonization by seaweeds in New England. In: Diamond Y J and Case T J (eds.), Community Ecology, Harper & Row, New York, pp 537-555
  26. Lubchenco J and Gaines SD (1981) A unified approach to marine plant-herbivore interactions. I. Populations and communities. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 12: 405-437 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.12.110181.002201
  27. Martinez EA and Santelices B (1998) Selective mortality on halploid and diploid microscopic stages of Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyta, Laminariales) J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 229: 219-239 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(98)00063-X
  28. McCook LJ and Chapman ARO (1991) Community succession following massive ice-scour on an exposed rocky shore: effects of Fucus canopy algae and of mussels during late succession. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 154: 137-169 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(91)90161-O
  29. Norton TA (1985) The zonation of seaweeds on rocky shores. In: Moore PG and Seed R (eds), The Ecology of Rocky Coasts, Hodder & Stoughton, London, pp 7-21
  30. Reed DC (1990a) An experimental evaluation of density dependence in a subtidal algal population. Ecology 71: 2286-2296 https://doi.org/10.2307/1938639
  31. Reed DC (1990b) The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment. Ecology 71: 776-787 https://doi.org/10.2307/1940329
  32. Reed DC and Foster MS (1984) The effects of canopy shading on algal recruitment and growth in a giant kelp forest. Ecology 65: 937-948 https://doi.org/10.2307/1938066
  33. Schiel DR (1985) Growth, survival and reproduction of two species of marine algae at different densities in natural stands. J Ecol 73: 199-217 https://doi.org/10.2307/2259778
  34. Schonbeck MW and Norton TA (1980) Factors controlling the lower limits of fucoid algae on the shore. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 43: 131-150 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(80)90021-0
  35. Underwood AJ (1997) Experiments in Ecology: Their Logical Design and Interpretation Using Analysis of Variance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  36. Vadas RL, Johnson S, and Norton TA (1992) Recruitment and mortality of early post-settlement stages of benthic algae. Br Phycol J 27: 331-351 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071619200650291
  37. Vadas RL, Wright WA, and Miller SL (1990) Recruitment of Ascophyllum nodosum: wave action as a source of mortality. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 61: 263-272 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps061263