The Microencapsulated Ascorbic Acid Release in vitro and Its Effect on Iron Bioavailability

  • Lee, Jun-Beum (Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University) ;
  • Ahn, Joung-Jwa (Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University) ;
  • Lee, Jong-Hwi (Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Sejong University) ;
  • Kwak, Hae-Soo (Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University)
  • Published : 2003.10.01

Abstract

The present study was carried out to examine the stability of microencapsulated ascorbic acid in simulated-gastric and intestinal situation in vitro and the effect of microencapsulated ascorbic acid on iron bioavailability. Coating materials used were polyglycerol monostearate (PGMS) and medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), and core materials were L-ascorbic acid and ferric ammonium sulfate. When ascorbic acid was microencapsulated by MCT, the release of ascorbic acid was 6.3% at pH 5 and 1.32% at pH 2 in simulated-gastric fluids during 60 min. When ascorbic acid was microencapsulated by PGMS, the more ascorbic acid was released in the range of 9.5 to 16.0%. Comparatively, ascorbic acid release increased significantly as 94.7% and 83.8% coated by MCT and PGMS, respectively, for 60 min incubation in simulated-intestinal fluid. In the subsequent study, we tested whether ascorbic acid enhanced the iron bioavailability or not. In results, serum iron content and transferring saturation increased dramatically when subjects consumed milks containing both encapsulated iron and encapsulated ascorbic acid, compared with those when consumed uncapsulated iron or encapsulated iron without ascorbic acid. Therefore, the present data indicated that microencapsulated ascorbic acid with both PGMS and MCT were effective means for fortifying ascorbic acid into milk and for enhancing the iron bioavailability.

Keywords

References

  1. Berseneva, E. A., Inanov, A. A., Sansonova, T. P., Chernova, E. M., and Oragvelidze, N. I., Microencapsulated aromatizers for tea. Pishchevaya Paomyshlennost, 1, 57-59 (1990)
  2. Braun, S. D. and Olson, N. F., Encapsulation of proteins and peptides in milk fat. Encapsulation efficiency and temperature and freezing stability. J. Microencapsulation, 3, 115-126 (1986) https://doi.org/10.3109/02652048609031566
  3. Deehr, M. S., Dallas, G. E., Smith, K. T., Taulbee, J. D., and Dawson-Heghes, B., Effect of different calcium sources on iron absorption in postmenopausal women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 51, 95-98 (1990) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/51.1.95
  4. Edmonson, L. F., Douglas, F. W., and Avants, J. K., Enrichment of pasteurized whole milk with iron. J. Dairy Sci., 54, 1422-1426 (1971) https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(71)86042-3
  5. Hegenauer, J., Saltman, P., Ludwig, D., Ripley, L., and Bajo, P., Effects of supplemental iron and copper on lipid oxidation in milk. 1. Comparison of metal complexes in emulsified and homogenized milk. J. Agric. Food Chem., 27, 860-867 (1979) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60224a048
  6. HANES., Preliminary findings of the first health and nutrition examination survey, United States, 1971-1972: Dietary intake and biochemical findings, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare Publications No. (HRA) 74-1219-1 (1974)
  7. Jackson, L. S. and Lee, K., Microencapsulated iron for food fortification. J. Food Sci., 56, 1047-1050 (1991)
  8. Kwak, H. S., Ihm, M. R., and Ahn, J., Microencapsulatation of $\beta$-galactosidase with fatty acid esters. J. Dairy Sci., 84, 1576-1582 (2001) https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74590-0
  9. Kwak, H. S., Yang, K. M., and Ahn, J., Microencapsulated iron for milk fortification. J. Agric. Food Chem., (in press) (2003)
  10. Kim, C. H., Lee, K. W., Baick, S. C., Kwak, H. S., and Kang, J. O., Studies on the microencapsulation of $\omega$-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technol., 28, 743-749 (1996)
  11. Lim, C., Kiesius, P. H., Li, H., and Robinson, E. H., Interaction between dietary levels of iron and vitamin C on growth, hematology, immune response and resistance on chemical catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Edwardsiella ictalun challenge. Aquaculture, 185, 313-327 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00352-X
  12. Magee, E. L. Jr. and Olson, N. F., Microencapsulation of cheese ripening systems: Stability of microcapsules. J. Dairy Sci., 64, 611-615 (1981) https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82619-7
  13. Monsen, E. R., Ascorbic acid: an enhancing factor in iron absorption. In 'National Bioavailability of iron', ed. Kies, C. American Chemical Society, Washington DC (1982)
  14. Nutrition Canada National Survey., Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare Publication No. H58-36-1973 (1973)
  15. NRC (National Research Council), Nutrient requirement of fish, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA (1993)
  16. SAS. Users Guide: Statistics, Version 5 Edition. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC (1985)
  17. Sankarikutty, B. M., Sreekumar, M., Nrayanan, C. S., and Mathew, A. G., Studies on microcapsulation of cardamon oil by spray drying technique. J. Food Sci. Technol. India, 25, 352-356 (1988)
  18. Uddin, M. S., Hawlader, M. N. A., and Zhn, H. J., Microencapsulation of ascorbic acid : effect of process variables on product characteristics. J. Microencapsualtion., 18(2), 199-209 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1080/02652040010000352
  19. Uicich, R. Pizano, F., Almeida, C. Diaz, M., Boccio, J. Zubillaga, M., Carumuega, E., and ODonell, A., Bioavailbility of microencapsulated ferrous sulfate in fluid cow milk. Studies in human beings. Nutr. Res., 19, 893-897 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(99)00049-4
  20. Wendy, H. R. and McMahon, D. J., Chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of Mozzarella cheese fortified using protein-chelated iron or ferric chloride. J. Dairy Sci., 81, 318-326 (1998) https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75580-8