Volatile Organic Compounds Concentrations and Its Personal Exposure in Indoor and Outdoor Environments in Summer

하계 실내 및 실외환경의 공기 중 휘발성 유기화합물 농도 및 개인노출

  • 양원호 ;
  • 손부순 ;
  • 박종안 ;
  • 장봉기 ;
  • 박완모 ;
  • 김윤신 ;
  • 어수미 ;
  • 윤중섭 ;
  • 류인철
  • Published : 2003.09.01


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in essentially all natural and synthetic materials from petrol to flowers. In this study, indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations of houses, offices and internet-cafes were measured and compared simultaneously with personal exposures of each 50 participants in Asan and Seoul, respectively. Also, factors that influence personal VOCs exposure were statistically analyzed using questionnaires in relation to house characteristics, time activities, and health effects. All VOCs concentrations were measured by OVM passive samplers (3M) and analyzed with GC/MS. Target pollutants among VOCs were Toluene, o-Xylene, m/p-Xylene, Ethylbenzene, MIBK, n-Octane, Styrene, Trichloroethylene, and 1,2-Dichlorobenzene. Indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations measured in Seoul were significantly higher than those in Asan except Ethylbenzene. Residential indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for all target compounds ranged from 0.94 to 1.51 and I/O ratios of Asan were a little higher than those of Seoul. Relationship between personal VOCs exposure, and indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations suggested that time-activity pattern could affect the high exposure to air pollutant. Factors that influence indoor VOCs level and personal exposure with regard to house characteristics in houses were building age, inside smoking and house type. In addition insecticide and cosmetics interestingly affected the VOCs personal exposure. Higher exposure to VOCs might be caused to be exciting increase and memory reduction, considering the relationship between measured VOCs concentrations and questionnaire (p<0.05).


Volatile organic compounds;Indoor air;Exposure;Time-activity pattern


  1. 환경부, 1999, 실내공기질 관리방안에 관한 연구, 10-16pp
  2. Lee, J. T, n Shin and Y Chung, 1999, Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea, Environment Health Perspective, 107(2), 149-154
  3. Sohn, J. Y, 1996, Research activities on indoor air quality in Korea, The 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 17-26pp
  4. Lee, K, W. Yang and N. Bofinger, 2000, Impact of microenvironmental nitrogen dioxide concentrations on personal exposure in Australia, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 50, 1739-1744
  5. Wade, W. A, W. A Cote and J. E. Yocom, 1975, A study of indoor air quality. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 25(9), 933-939
  6. US. EPA, 1990, Science Advisory Board : Reducing risk-setting priorities and strategies for environmental protection, SAB-EC-90-021, 9-12pp
  7. Jones, A P., 1999, Indoor air quality and health, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 4535-4564
  8. Bloemen, H.J. and J. Bum, 1993, Chemistry and analysis of volatile organic compounds in the environment, Blackie Academic & Professional, 35-74pp
  9. Brooks, B. O., G. M. Utter, J. A DeBroy and R. D. Schimke, 1991, Indoor air pollution: an edifice complex, Clinical Toxicology, 29(3), 315-374
  10. Sack, T M., D. H. Steele, K. Hammerstrom, and J. Remmers, 1992, A Survey of Household Products for Volatile Organic Compounds, Atmospheric Environment, 26A(6), 1063-1070
  11. Flint, P. and R. Otson, 1994, Assessment of the influence of climatic factors on concentration levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Canadian homes, Atmospheric Environment, 28(22), 3581-3586
  12. Wallace, I. A, 1991, Comparison of risks from outdoor and indoor expsoure to toxic chemicals' Environment Health Perspective, 95(1), 7-13
  13. 환경부, 2001, 환경백서, 365-366pp
  14. Schwab, M, S. D. Colome, J. D. Spengler, B. P. Ryan and I. H. Billick, 1990, Activity patterns applied to pollutant exposure assessment: data from a personal monitoring study in Los Angeles, Toxicology and Industrial Health, 6(6), 517-532
  15. Chung, C. W., M T Morandi, T H. Stock and M Afshar, 1999, Evaluation of a passive sampler for volatile organic compounds at ppb concentrations, varying temperature, and humidities with 24-h exposures. 2. sampler performance, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, 3666-3671
  16. 3M, Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 Analysis Guide, Occupational Health and Safety. Products Division/3M (
  17. Uchiyama, S., M. Asai and S. Hasegawa, 1999, A sensitive diffusion sampler for the determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 1913-1920
  18. Edwards, R. D, J. Jurvelin, K. Saarela and M. Jantunen, 2001, VOC concentrations measured in personal samples and residential indoor, outdoor and workplace microenvironments in EXPOLIS-Helsinki, Finland, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 4531-4535
  19. Cohen, M. A, P. B. Ryan, H. Ozkaynak and P. S. Epstein, 1989, Indoor/outdoor measurements of volatile organic compounds in the Kanawha valley of west Virginia, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 39, 1086-1093
  20. Gordon, S. M., P.J. Callahan, M G. Nishioka, M C. Brinkman, M K O'rourke, M D. Lebowitz, and D.J. Moschandreas, 1999, Residential environmental measurements in the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) pilot study in Arizona: preliminary results for pesticides and VOCs, Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 9, 456-470
  21. 양원호, 배현주, 정문호, 2002, 거주지역 실내공기 특성 및 이산화질소 노출에 관한 연구, 한국환경위생학회, 28(2), 183-192
  22. Sexton, K., R. Letz and J. D. Spengler, 1983, Estimating human exposure to nitrogen dioxide: An indoor/outdoor modeling approach. Environmental Research, 32, 151-166
  23. Takekito, O., 2000, 2000년 국제 학술 심포지움 및 총회, 2002년 월드컵을 대비한 실내공기오염관리방, 대한위생학회, 1-21pp
  24. Schneider, P., G. Lorinci, I. S. Gebeffugi, J. Heinrich, A. Ketterup and H.E. Wichmann, 1999, Vertical and horizontal variability of volatile organic compounds in home in eastern Germany, Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 9(4), 282292
  25. 백성옥, 김윤신, 1998, 도시지역 실내환경 유형별 공기질 특성 평가 -가정, 사무실 및 식당을 중심으로-, 한국대기보전학회지, 14(4),343-360
  26. 양원호, 이선화, 백도명, 2001, 시간가중치 평균모델을 이용한 이산화질소 노출 평가 및 예측, 한국대기환경학회지, 17(3),251-258
  27. Ortiz, E., E. Alemon, D. Romero, J. L. Arriaga, P. Olaya, F. Guzman and C. Rios, 2002, Personal exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene in different microenvironments at the Mexico city metropolitan zone, The Science of the Total Environment, 287, 241-248
  28. Johnson, T., T. Long and W. Ollison, 2000, Prediction of hourly microenvironmental concentrations of fine particles based on measurements obtained from the Baltimore scripted activity study, Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 10, 403-41l
  29. Levy, J. I., K. Lee, J. D. Spengler and Y. Yanagisawa, 1998, Impact of residential nitrogen dioxide exposure on personal exposure: An international study, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 48, 553-560