Studies on the Distribution of the Microalgae in the Tidal Flats of Gamami Beach, Young-Gwang, Korea

가마미 해수욕장(전남 영광) 갯벌의 미세조류의 분포에 관한 연구

  • 이학영 (전남대학교 생명과학부)
  • Published : 2003.07.01


Distributional patterns of microalgae were studied in the tidal flats of Gamami Beach(Young-Gwang, Korea) from November 1999 to 2000 July. The tidal flats of Gamami Beach was composed mainly of sandy sediment. The concentrations of nutrients were low compared with other tidal flats. In the present study, 68 species of microalgal flora were identified. These were comprised of 25 species of benthic microalgae and 59 species of planktonic microalgae. Diatoms predominated the benthic microalgae with 96.0% of total species occurred. Dominant species were Amphora sp., Cocconeis sp., Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Coscinodiscus sp., Nitzschia sigma var. intermedia, Nitzschia distans, Navicula spp., Paralia sulcata, Pleurosigma sp. Skeletonema coastatum, and Surirella sp. Among them, Amphora sp., Paralia sulcata, and species of Pleurosigma and Nitzschia were observed throughout the studied period. Planktonic microalgae of Gamami Beach was also predominated by diatoms. They occupied 88.1% of total planktonic microalgae. The density of microalgal population was higher in silty sediment than in sandy sediment. The population density of microalgae was higher in high tide zone than that in low tide zone. The density of the benthic microalgae in the surface layer of tidal flats showed increasing tendency for 2 hours after the beginning of ebb tide. On the contrary, benthic microalgal density of subsurface layer was decreased during the period. Concentrations of chlorophyll ${\alpha}$ from sediment and water were not synchronized during the study period. Therefore, the distributional patterns of the benthic microalgae and planktonic algae seemed not to be related. Chlorophyll ${\alpha}$ of water was highly related with the concentration of NH$_4$-N, whereas, chlorophyll ${\alpha}$ of sediment uas related with NO$_3$-N concentration.


  1. Levinton, J.S., 2001, Marine Biology : Function, Biodiversity, and Ecology, 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, 515pp.
  2. Mulamoottil, G., B.G. Warner and E.A. McBean, 1996, Wetlands-Environmental gradients, boundaries, and buffers, Lewis Publishers, London, 298pp.
  3. Teal, J.M., 1962, Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia, Ecology, 43(2), 473-490.
  4. Höpner, T. and K. Wonneberger, 1985, Examination of the connection between the patchiness of benthic nutrient efflux and epiphytobenthos patchiness on intertidal flats, Netherlands J. Sea Res., 19(2), 277-285.
  5. Rizzo, W., 1990, Nutrient exchanges between the water column and a subtidal benthic microalgal community, Estuaries, 13(2), 219-226.
  6. Boschker, H.T.S., J.F.C. de Brouwer and T.E. Cappenberg, 1999, The contribution of macrophyte-derived organic matter to microbial biomass in salt-marsh sediments: stable carbon isotope analysis of microbial biomarkers, Limnol. Oceanogr, 44(2), 309-319.
  7. Broitman, B.R., S.A. Navarrete, F. Smith and S.D. Gaines, 2001, Geographic variation of southeastern Pacific intertidal communities, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 224(1), 21-34.
  8. Valiela, I. and J.M. Teal, 1979, Nitrogen budget of a salt marsh ecosystem, Nature, 280, 702- 724.
  9. Kendrick, G.A., L.S. Langtry, J. Fitzpatrick, R. Griffiths and C.A. Jacoby, 1998, Benthic microalgae and nutrient dynamics in wave-disturbed environments in Marmion Lagoon, Western Australia, compared with less disturbed mesocosms, Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 228 (1), 83-105.
  10. Sze, P., 1998, A Biology of the Algae, WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston, Massachusetts, 278pp.
  11. Sand-Jensen, K. and J. Borum, 1991, Interactions among phytoplankton, periphyton, and macrophytes in temperate freshwaters and estuaries, Aquatic Botany, 41(2), 137-175.
  12. Pinckney, J., Y. Piceno and C.R. Lovell, 1994, Short-term changes in the vertical distribution of benthic microalgal biomass in intertidal muddy sediments, Diatom Res., 9(1), 143-153.
  13. Archambault, P. and E. Bourget, 1999, Influence of shoreline configuration on spatial variation of meroplanktonic larvae, recruitment and diversity of benthic subtidal communities, Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 238(1), 161-184.
  14. 해양수산부, 2000, 갯벌 생태계조사 및 지속 가능한 이용방안 연구, 해양수산부, 서울, 1203pp.
  15. 고철환, 2001, 한국의 갯벌, 서울대학교 출판부, 서울, 1073pp.
  16. 홍재상, 1998, 한국의 갯벌, 대원사, 서울, 143pp.
  17. 고철환, 1996, 한국 서해의 갯벌: 생태 현황과 간척, In 습지, 생명과 조화의 땅, 녹색연합, 서울, 28-36pp.
  18. Barrett, N.E. and W.A. Niering, 1993, Tidal marsh restoration: trends in vegetation change using a geographical information system(GIS), Restoration Ecology, 1(1), 18-28.
  19. Clalicoates, J., 1996, Wetland conservation in the UK, In Wetland, the land of harmony and life, Green Korea, Seoul, 94-105pp.
  20. Hammer, D.A., 1996, Creating Freshwater Wetlands, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 197-198pp.
  21. Rutschke. E., 1996, The establishment and management of tidal national parks, In Wetland, the land of harmony and life, Green Korea, Seoul, 53-68pp.
  22. Underwood, G.J.C. and D.J. Smith, 1998, Predicting epipelic diatom exopolymer concentrations in intertidal sediments from sediment chlorophyll a, Microbial Ecol., 35(2), 116-125.
  23. Carter, R.W.G., 1988, Coastral Environments, Academic Press, London, 617pp.
  24. Lucas, C.H., C. Banham and P.M. Holligan, 2001, Benthic-pelagic exchange of microalgae at a tidal flat, 2. Taxonomic analysis, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 212(1), 39-52.
  25. APHA, 1989, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, APHA, Baltimore, 1482pp.
  26. Strickland, J.D.H. and T.R. Parsons, 1984, A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis, 2nd Ed., Unipub., New York, 323pp.
  27. 김종구, 유선재, 2001, 새만금지역 하구갯벌의 유기물 분해능력 평가, 한국환경과학회지, 10(5), 315-321.
  28. 유선재, 김종구, 1999, 갯벌의 오염물질 정화능력평가, 한국수산학회지, 32(4), 409-415.
  29. 이학영, 2002, 한국 남서부 갯벌의 저서성 미세조류의 대상분포와 수직분포에 미치는 이화학적 요인의 효과에 관한 비교, 한국환경과학회지, 11(6), 529-535.
  30. 조기안, 1995, 환경오염 특성에 따른 연안 기초생태계의 변화 - 광양만, 득량만, 영광주변 해역을 중심으로, 전남대학교 박사학위논문, 234pp.
  31. Gao, X.J., S.J. Xu and N.L. Zhang, 2001, Distribution and forms of phosphorus in tidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary and coast, Sci. China Ser. B-Chem, 44, 190-196.
  32. Adam, P., 1990, Saltmarsh Ecology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 461pp.
  33. Wolfstein, K.F. Colijn and R. Doerffer, 2000, Seasonal dynamics of microphytobenthos biomass and photosynthetic characteristics in the northern German Wadden Sea, obtained by the photosynthetic light dispensation system, Est. Coast. Shelf Sci., 51(5), 651-662.
  34. Carhoon, L.B., 1999, The role of benthic microalgae in neritic ecosystems, Oceanogr. Mar. Biol., 37(1), 47-86.
  35. Malvarez, G.C. J.A.G. Cooper and D.W.T. Jackson, 2001, Relationships between wave- induced currents ande sediment grain size on a sandy tidal-flat, J. of Sedimentary Res, 71 (5), 705-712.
  36. Herman, P.M.J., J.J. Middelburg and C.H.R. Heip, 2001, Benthic community structure and sediment processes on an intertidal flat: results from the ECOFLAT project, Contin. Shelf Res., 21(18-19), 2055-2071.
  37. Van de, K., J. P.M.J. Herman, P. Thoolen and C.H.R. Heip, 2001, Do alternate stable states occur in natural ecosystems? Evidence from a tidal falt., Ecology, 82(12), 3449-3461.[3449:DASSOI]2.0.CO;2

Cited by

  1. Seasonal Variation in Species Composition and Biomass of Microphytobenthos at Jinsanri, Taean, Korea vol.46, pp.2, 2013,