Residue Levels of Chlorpyrifos and Chlorothalonil in Apples at Harvest

Chlorpyrifos 및 Chlorothalonil의 사과 생산단계별 잔류특성

  • Kim, Young-Sook (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Park, Ju-Hwang (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Park, Jong-Woo (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Young-Deuk (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Daegu University) ;
  • Lee, Kyu-Seung (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Jang-Eok (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyungpook National University)
  • Published : 2003.06.30


An organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos and an arylnitrile fungicide, chlorothalonil commonly used far apple were subjected to a residual investigation under field conditions to ensure safety of terminal residues at harvest. After pesticides were applied at standard rate in apple tree fer 15 days for chlorpyrifos and 30 days far chlorothalonil, persistence of their residues in apple was investigated by several interval. At harvest, residual concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in apple were 1.3 and 2.4mg/kg, respectively, and the residue levels were higher than MRL 1.0 mg/kg in Korea. As well fitted by the first-oder kinetics, biological half-lives of the pesticide residues in apple were 9.3 days for chlorpyrifos and 32.2 days for chlorothalonil. During the storage, half-lives of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil were 35.0 and 56.3days at room temperature, and 120.7 and 182.8 days at 412, respectively. Distribution of chlorpyrifos residue in flesh, fruit skin and stalk cavity of each apple corresponded to 0.1% 22.8% and 77.1%, respectively. In case of chlorothalonil, residue in flesh, fruit skin and stalk cavity was 4.4%, 10.4% and 85.2%, respectively.


  1. 송병훈 (1992) 우리나라 농산물중의 잔류농약과 안전성, 한국식품위생안전성학회지 7(2), 207-217
  2. Kim, Y. S., Park, J. H., Park, J. W., Lee, Y. D., Lee, K. S. and Kim, J. E. (2002) Persistence and dislodgeable residues of chlorpyrifos and procymidone in lettuce leaves under greenhouse, Korean J. Environ. Agric. 21(2), 149-155
  3. Choi, K. I., Seong, K. Y., Jeong, T. G., Lee, J. H., Hur, J. H., Ko, K. Y. and Lee, K. S. (2002) Dissipation and removal rate of dichlofluanid and iprodione residues on greenhouse cherry tomato, Korean J. Environ. Agric. 21(4), 231-236
  4. 강상조 (2003) 2003년도 과실수급 동향과 전망, 한국과수 144, 2-4
  5. 배추김치의 담금 및 숙성과정중 유기인계 농약의 제거(2002) 박종우, 주리아, 김장억, 한국식품위생안전성학회지 17(2), 87-93
  6. 정영호, 김장억, 김정한, 이영득, 임치환, 허장현 (2000) 최신농약학, 시그마프레스, p.341-361
  7. 고복실, 전태환, 정규생, 이성국 (1996) 세척방법에 따른 상추중 유기인 잔류농약의 제거효과, 한국농촌학회지 21(2), 159-160
  8. 제갈성아, 한영선, 김성애 (2000) 쌀과 배추의 세척 및 가열에 의한 유기인계 농약의 제거효과, 한국식품과학회지 16(5), 410-414
  9. Pappas, C. J., Athanasopoulos, P. E., Kyriakidis, N. B. (1998) Degradation of azinphos ethyl in apples stored in different conditions, J. Agric. Food Chern. 46, 2092-2095
  10. Panagiotis E. Athanasopoulos, Christos Pappas (2000) Effects of fruit acidity and storage conditions on the rate of degradation of azinphos methyl on apples and lemons, J. Agric. Food Chem. 69, 69-72
  11. Noubar J. Bostanian, Andra Belanger, France Boudreau, and Mailloux (1993) Dissipation of cyhalothrin residues on apple foliage and apples at harvest, J. Agric. Food Chern. 41(2), 292-295
  12. Saad M. Ismail, Hussein M. Ali, and Ramadan A. Habiba (1993) GC-ECD and GC-MS analysis of profenofos residues and its biochemical effects in tomato products, J. Agric. Food Chem. 41(4), 610-615
  13. Makoto Miyahara and Yukio Saito (1993) Pesticide removal efficiencies of soybean oil refining processes, J. Agric. Food Chem. 41(5), 731-734
  14. Michel Galoux, Michel De Proft, and Albert Bemes (1992) Aldicarb in edible potato crops: Agronomic interest and residues in tubers during growth and after cooking, J. Agric. Food Chem. 40(1), 139-141
  15. Guye H. Willis, Leslie L. McDowell, Sammie Smith, and Lloyd M. Southwick (1992) Foliar washoff of oil-applied malathion and permethrin as a function of time after application, J. Agric. Food Chem. 40(6), 1086-1089
  16. Yukari Tsumura-Hasegawa, Yasuhide Tonogai, Yumiko Nakamura and Yoshio Ito (1992) Residue levels of dichlorvos, chloropham, and pyrethrins in postharvest-treated potatoes during storage or processing into starch, J. Agric. Food Chem. 40(7), 1240-1244
  17. 농약공업협회 (2002) 농약사용지침서, p.206-207, p.292-293
  18. Tomlin, C. D. S. (2000) In The Pesticide Manual (12th ed.), British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK. p.227-229, p.235-237
  19. 농촌진흥청(2000) 농약등록시험담당자 교육교재; 잔류성 시험의 기준과 방법, 농촌진흥청 고시 제2000-1호
  20. 農樂殘留分析硏空班 : 最新農樂の 分析, 中央法規出版社, 東京, 1995, p.513
  21. 이해근, 이영득, 신용화 (1998) 사과와 감귤중 농약잔류에 관한 조사 연구, 농시논문집(작물보호편) 30(3), 42-51

Cited by

  1. Dissipation Patterns of Triazole Fungicides Estimated from Kinetic Models in Apple vol.55, pp.4, 2012,
  2. Residual Patterns of Acaricides, Etoxazole and Flufenoxuron in Apples vol.18, pp.2, 2014,
  3. Degradation of chlorpyrifos residues in apple under temperate conditions of Kashmir Valley vol.187, pp.8, 2015,
  4. Removal Efficiency of Microorganism and Pesticide Residues by a Using Surface Washing System on Yuja (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) vol.18, pp.5, 2011,
  5. Establishment of Pre-Harvest Residue Limit for Buprofezin and Penthiopyrad during Cultivation of Oriental melon (Cucumis melon var. makuwa) vol.18, pp.3, 2014,
  6. Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Products for Raw Juice in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea vol.33, pp.5, 2018,