Effects of Ammonia, Urea Plus Calcium Hydroxide and Animal Urine Treatments on Chemical Composition and In sacco Degradability of Rice Straw

  • Fadel Elseed, A.M.A. (United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University) ;
  • Sekine, J. (Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University) ;
  • Hishinuma, M. (Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University) ;
  • Hamana, K. (Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University)
  • Received : 2002.09.05
  • Accepted : 2002.11.28
  • Published : 2003.03.01


This experiment was conducted to examine the effects on the composition and rumen degradation in sacco of rice straw treated with animal urine (1 l of 2.9 g N/kg DM straw) and urea plus calcium hydroxide (2% urea plus 0.5% $Ca(OH)_2$/kg DM straw) as a cheap and relatively safe alternative for ammonia (3% ammonia solution/kg DM straw). Mold occurred in urine treated straw, but other treatments were apparently mold-free. All treatments significantly (p<0.05) increased CP content in the straw compared with untreated one. Ammonia-treated straw contained CP at about twice that in urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated straw. NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all treatments, while ADF and cellulose showed no differences compared with untreated straw. The degradable fraction of DM, CP, NDF, hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments than for urine treated or untreated straw except for CP of urine treated straw. Chemical treatment of rice straw increased the readily degradable fraction of CP, while it decreased the slowly degradable fraction for urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated rice straw. The degradation rate of hemicellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments compared to urine treated or untreated straw. However, no effect on cellulose degradation rate was found by any of the treatments. There was no improvement in the degradation kinetics caused by the urine treatment despite the improvement of the chemical composition. Although the improvement in rumen degradability was less in the urea-calcium hydroxide treatment than in the ammonia treatment, its use may be more desirable because it is less expensive to obtain, less hazardous nature, and readily available. For further improvement it is necessary to investigate the supplementation of slowly degradable nitrogen to ureacalcium hydroxide treated rice straw diet.


Supported by : Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University


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