DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Genetic Diversity of Indigenous Cattle Populations in Bhutan: Implications for Conservation

  • Dorji, T. (Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture) ;
  • Hanotte, O. (International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)) ;
  • Arbenz, M. (Kyrgyz Swiss Agriculture Project) ;
  • Rege, J.E.O. (ILRI) ;
  • Roder, W. (Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture)
  • Received : 2002.12.05
  • Accepted : 2003.03.24
  • Published : 2003.07.01

Abstract

The Genetic diversity and relationship of native Siri (Bos indicus) cattle populations of Bhutan were evaluated using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 120 Siri cattle were sampled and were grouped into four populations according to their geographical locations which were named Siri West, Siri South, Siri Central and Siri East cattle. For each, 30 individuals were sampled. In addition, 30 samples each of Indian Jaba (B. indicus), Tibetan Goleng (B. taurus), Nepal Hill cattle (B. indicus), Holstein Friesian (B.taurus) and Mithun (B. frontalis) were typed. The mean number of alleles per loci (MNA) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) were high in the Siri populations ($MNA=7.2{\pm}0.3$ to $8.9{\pm}0.5$ and $Ho=0.67{\pm}0.04$ to $0.73{\pm}0.03$). The smallest coefficient of genetic differentiation and genetic distance ($F_{ST}=0.015$ and $D_A=0.073$) were obtained between Siri West and Siri Central populations. Siri East population is genetically distinct from the other Siri populations being close to the Indian Jaba ($F_{ST}=0.024$ and $D_A=0.084$). A high bootstrap value of 96% supported the close relationship of Siri South, Siri Central and Siri West, while the relationship between Siri East and Jaba was also supported by a high bootstrap value (82%). Data from principal component analysis and individual assignment test were in concordance with the inference from genetic distance and differentiation. In conclusion we identified two separate Siri cattle populations in Bhutan at the genetic level. One population included Siri cattle sampled from the West, Central and South of the country and the other Siri cattle was sampled from the East of the country. We suggest that Siri cattle conservation program in Bhutan should focus on the former population as it has received less genetic influence from other cattle breeds.

Keywords

Siri;Cattle;Bhutan;Genetic Relationships

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Medigenomix Laboratory Germany

References

  1. DALSS. 2001. The 9th five year plan livestock strategic policy and planning document, The Ministry of Agriculture, Bhutan.
  2. Martinez, A. M., J. V. Delgado, A. Rodero and J. L. Vega-Pla. 2000. Genetic structure of the Iberian pig breed using microsatellite. Anim. Genet 31:295-301. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2052.2000.00645.x
  3. Ota, T. 1993. Dispan: Genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. Pensylvenia State University, University Park, PA, USA. http://www.Bio.Psu.Edu/People/Faculty/Nei/Lab/programs.html.
  4. Park, S. D. E. 2001. Trypanotolerance in West African Cattle and the Population Genetic Effects of Selection, Ph. D Thesis, University of Dublin, Ireland.
  5. Reynolds, J., B. S. Weir and C. C. Cockerham.1983. Estimation of the coancestry coefficient: Basis for a short-term genetic distance. Genetics 105:767-779.
  6. Primmer, C. R., A. P. Moller and H. Ellergen. 1996. A wide-range survey of cross species microsatellite amplification in birds. Mol. Ecology 5:365-78.
  7. Arbenz, M. and G. Tshering. 2000. Local Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle in Bhutan. The Ministry of Agriculture, Bhutan, RNR-RC, Jakar, Special Publication No. 4.
  8. Tantia, M. S., P. K. Vij, R. K. Vijh, P. Kumar, B. K. Joshi, A. E. Nivsakar and R. Sahai. 1996. Siri: The cattle of the Eastern Himalayas. Animal Genetic Resources Information 19:37-43.
  9. Raymond, M. and F. Rousset. 1995. GENEPOP (version 3.3): Population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J. Heredity 86:248-249.
  10. Shrestha, H. R.1998. Dairy animal production systems in Ilam. In: Annual Technical Report FY 2054/2055. Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Bovine Research Program, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. pp.14-17.
  11. Diez-Tascon, C., R. P. Littlejohn, P. A. R. Almeida and A. M. Crawford. 2000. Genetic variation within the Merino sheep breed: analysis of closely related populations using microsatellites. Anim. Genet 31:243-251 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2052.2000.00636.x
  12. Rege, J. E. O. 1996. Research on Animal Genetic Resources:Activities of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). In: Proceedings of the 1st Regional Training Workshop on the Conservation of Domestic Animal Diversity, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 118-121.
  13. Bjrnstad, G. and K. H. Roed. 2001. Breed demarcation and potential for breed allocation of horses assessed by microsatellite markers. Anim. Genet 32:59-65. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2052.2001.00705.x
  14. Pandey, A. K., M. S. Tantia, D. Kumar, B. Misra, P. Choudhary and R. K. Vijh. 2002. Microsatellite analysis of three poultry breeds of India. Asia-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(11):1536-1542.
  15. Banks, M. A. and W. Eichert. 2000. WHICHRUN (Version 3.2): A computer program for population assignment of individuals based on multilocus genotype data. J. of Heredity 91:87-89. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/91.1.87
  16. MacHugh, D. E., R. T. Loftus, P. Cunningham and D. G. Bradley. 1998. Genetic structure of seven European cattle breeds assessed using 20 microsatellite markers. Anim. Genet 29:333-340. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2052.1998.295330.x
  17. Payne, W. J. A. and J. Hodges. 1997. Tropical cattle: Origins, breeds and breeding policies. Blackwell science. London.
  18. Saitou, N. and M. Nei. 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4:406-425.
  19. Page, R. D. M. 1996. TREEVIEW: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 12:357-358.
  20. MacHugh, D. E. 1996. Molecular biogeography and genetic structure of domesticated cattle. Ph.D Thesis. Trinity college, University of Dublin, Ireland.
  21. Minch, E., A. Ruiz-Linares, D. B. Goldstein, M. W. Feldman and L. L.Cavalli-Sforza. 1998. Microsat (Version 1.5d): a computer program for calculating various statistics on microsatellite allele data. http://human.stanford.edu/microsat/microsat.html.
  22. Tshering, P. 1995. An economic evaluation of the impact of food and mouth disease and its control in Bhutan. M. Sc. Thesis. The University of Reading, U.K.
  23. Bourrgeois-Luethi, N. 1999. Bovine and Equine in Bhutan. The Ministry of Agriculture, Bhutan, RNR-RC, Jakar Special Publication No.2.
  24. Nei, M., F. Tajima and Y. Tateno. 1983. Accuracy of estimated phylogenetic trees from molecular data. J. Mol. Evolution. 19:153-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02300753
  25. Som, R. 1958. Siri breed of cattle. Indian Dairyman 10: 61-62.
  26. Swofford, D. L. and R. B. Selander. 1989. Biosys 1. A computer program for the analysis of allelic variation in population genetics and biochemical systematics (release 1.7). University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, USA.
  27. Winter, H. and U. Tshewang. 1989. The crossbreeding of yak in Merak-Sakten, Bhutan. Zuchthyg. 24:16-122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.1989.tb00656.x
  28. Buchanan, F. C., L. J. Adams, R. P. Littlejohn, J. F. Maddox and A. M. Crawford.1994. Determination of evolutionary relationship among sheep breeds using microsatellites. Genomics 22:397-403. https://doi.org/10.1006/geno.1994.1401
  29. Felius, M.1995. Cattle breed an encyclopedia. Misset uitgeverij. Doetinchem, Netherland., S. C. Gupta and N. Gupta. 2000. Mithun-An important animal genetic resources of North East Hill Region. In: Domestic Animal Diversity Conservation and Sustainable Development (Ed. R. Sahai and R. K Vijh). SI Publications, Karnal, India. pp. 220-230.

Cited by

  1. Genetic diversity studies in farm animals - a survey vol.121, pp.6, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0388.2004.00479.x
  2. Genetic diversity studies of Kherigarh cattle based on microsatellite markers vol.85, pp.2, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02729017
  3. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan vol.85, pp.3, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02935326
  4. Estimation of genetic diversity in Siri cattle from India vol.44, pp.11, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1134/S1022795408110124
  5. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for milk yield in traditional Nublang cattle (Bos indicus) of Bhutan vol.57, pp.2078-6344, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1017/S2078633615000223