DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Rumen Manipulation to Improve Animal Productivity

  • Santra, A. ;
  • Karim, S.A.
  • Published : 2003.05.01

Abstract

Anaerobic rumen microorganisms mainly bacteria, protozoa and fungi degrade ligno-cellulosic feeds consumed by the ruminants. The ruminants in developing countries are predominantly maintained on low grade roughage and grazing on degraded range land resulting in their poor nutrient utilization and productivity. Hence, manipulation of rumen fermentation was tried during last two decades to optimize ruminal fermentation for improving nutrient utilization and productivity of the animals. Modification of rumen microbial composition and their activity was attempted by using chemical additives those selectively effect rumen microbes, introduction of naturally occurring or genetically modified foreign microbes into the rumen and genetically manipulation of existing microbes in the rumen ecosystem. Accordingly, rumen protozoa were eliminated by defaunation for reducing ruminal methane production and increasing protein outflow in the intestine, resulting in improve growth and feed conversion efficiency of the animals. Further, Interspecies trans-inoculation of rumen microbes was also successfully used for annulment of dietary toxic factor. Additionally, probiotics of bacterial and yeast origin have been used in animal feeding to stabilize rumen fermentation, reduced incidence of diarrhoea and thus improving growth and feed conversion efficiency of young stalk. It is envisaged that genetic manipulation of rumen microorganisms has enormous research potential in developing countries. In view of feed resource availability more emphasis has to be given for manipulating rumen fermentation to increase cellulolytic activity for efficient utilization of low grade roughage.

Keywords

Rumen Manipulation;Defaunation;Probiotics;Growth;Feed Conversion Efficiency;Nutrient Utilization

References

  1. Alarcon, R. A. G., J. T. Huber, G. E. Higginbotham, F. Wiersma, D. Amnon and B. Taylor. 1991. Influence of feeding Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on milk yield and early pattern of body temperature on lactating cows. J. Anim. Sci. 69:1733-1740. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6941733x
  2. Allison, M. J., W. R. Mayberry, C. S. McSweeney and D. A. Stah. 1992. Synergistes jonesii, gen. Nov., sp. nov.: A rumen bacterium that degrades toxic pyridinediols. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 15:522-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0723-2020(11)80111-6
  3. Andrighetto, I., L. Bailoni, G. Cozzi and P. Berzaghi. 1993. Effect of yeast culture addition on digestion in sheep fed a high concentrate diet. Small Rum. Res. 12:27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(93)90035-G
  4. Arakaki, L. C., R. C. Stahringer, J. E. Garrett and B. A. Dehority. 2000. The effects of feeding monensin and yeast culture alone or in combination, on the concentration and generic composition of rumen protozoa in steers fed on low-quality pasture supplemented with increasing levels of concentrate. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 84:121-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00108-5
  5. Bomba, A., G. I. Kalacnjuk, J. Lenart, O. G. Savka, R. Zitnan and M. G. Gerasimiv. 1992. Diet and microbial stimulation of rumen digestion. Zivocisna-Vyroba. 37:747-754.
  6. Bonhomme, A. 1990. Rumen ciliates: their metabolism and relationships with bacteria and their hosts. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 30:203-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(90)90016-2
  7. Bradford, G. E. 1999. Contribution of animal agriculture to meeting global human food demand. Livest. Prod. Sci. 59:95-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(99)00019-6
  8. Chaudhary, L. C. and A. Srivastava. 1995. Performance of growing Murrah buffalo calves as affected by treatment with Manoxol and the presence of ciliate protozoa in the rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 51:281-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)00689-7
  9. Chaudhary, L. C., A. Srivastava and K. K. Singh. 1995. Rumen fermentation pattern and digestion of structural carbohydrate in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves as affected by ciliate protozoa. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 56:111-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00810-A
  10. Coleman, G. S. 1975. The inter relationship between rumen ciliate protozoa and bacteria. In: Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant (Ed. W. Mc Donald and A. C. I. Warner). The University of New England Publishing Unit, pp. 149-164.
  11. Coleman, G. S. 1986. The distribution of carboxymethyl cellulase between fractions taken from the rumen of sheep containing no protozoa or one of five different protozoal population. J. Agric. Sci. 106:121-127. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600061827
  12. Demeyer, D. I. and C. J. Van Nevel. 1979. Effect of defaunation on the metabolism of rumen microorganisms. Br. J. Nutr. 42:515-524. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19790143
  13. Egan, A. R., F. Frederick and R. M. Dixon. 1986. Improving efficiency of use supplements by manipulation of management procedures. In: Ruminal Feeding System Utilizing Fibrous Agricultural Residues (Ed. R. M. Dixon). International Development Program of Australian Universities and Colleges (IDP), Canberra, Australia, pp. 69-81.
  14. El Hassan, S. M., C. J. Newbold, I. E. Edwards, J. H. Topps and R. J. Wallace. 1996. Effect of yeast culture on rumen fermentation, microbial protein flow from the rumen and live weight gain in bulls given high cereal diets. Anim. Sci. 62:43-48. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800014296
  15. Faichney, G. J. and D. A. Griffiths. 1978. Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet. Br. J. Nutr. 40:71-82. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19780097
  16. Fonty, G., J. P. Jouany, J. Senaud, Ph. Gouet and J. Grain. 1984. The evolution of microflora, microfauna and digestion in the rumen of lambs from birth to four months. Can. J. Anim. Sci. Supp.:165-169.
  17. Gilliland, F. L., B. B. Bruce, L. J. Bush and T. E. Staley. 1980. Comparison of two strain of Lactobacillus acidophillus as dietary adjuncts for young calves. J. Dairy Sci. 63:964-974. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83033-5
  18. Harris, B. and R. Lobo. 1988. Feeding yeast culture to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 71 (Supp. 1) 276 (Abstr.).
  19. Hegarty, R. S., J. V. Nolan and R. A. Leng. 1991. Sulphur availability and microbial fermentation in fauna free rumen. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 41:725-736. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450399109428517
  20. Imai, S. 1998. Phylogenetic taxonomy of rumen ciliate protozoa based on their morphology and distribution. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 13:17-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.1998.9706670
  21. Jouany, J. P., B. Michalet-Dorea and M. Doreau. 2000. Manipulation of rumen ecosystem to support high performance beef cattle. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:96-114.
  22. Kayouli, C., D. I. Demeyer and R. Dendooven. 1983/84. Effect of defaunation on straw digestion in sacco and on particle retention in the rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:165-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(84)90006-3
  23. Kim, D. Y., B. A. Kent., M. R. Figueroa, D. P. Dawson, C. E. Battalas, M. J. Aramel and J. L. Walters. 1992. Effect of added yeast culture with or without Aspergillus oryzae in rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility when fed to non lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75 (Supp. 1) 206 (Abstr.).
  24. Martin, S. A. and D. J. Nisbet. 1992. Effect of direct fed microbials on rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 75: 1736-1744. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77932-6
  25. Mathison, G. W. and L. P. Milligan. 1971. Nitrogen metabolism in sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 25:351-366. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19710100
  26. McSweeney, C. S., B. P. Dalrymple, K. S. Gobius, P. M. Kennedy, D. O. Krause, R. I. Mackie and G. P. Xue. 1999. The application of rumen biotechnology to improve the nutritive value of fibrous feed stuffs: pre and post ingestion. Livest. Prod. Sci. 59:265-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(99)00032-9
  27. Newbold, C. J., P. E. V. Williams, A. Walker and R. J. Wallace. 1990. The effect of yeast culture on yeast numbers and fermentation in the rumen ecosystem. Proc. Nutr. Soc. UK, 49:47A.
  28. Osman, H., A. R. Abou Akkada and K. A. Agabawi. 1970. Influence of rumen ciliate protozoa on conversion of food and growth rate in early weaned Zebu calves. Anim. Prod. 12:267-271. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100038848
  29. Parker, R. B. 1974. Probiotics in other half of the antibiotics story. Animal Nutrition and Health (December) :4-8.
  30. Prahalada, H. K., D. N. Kamra and N. N. Pathak. 2001. Effect of feeding Saccharomyces cervisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on nutrient utilization and performance of crossbred cattle calves. International J. Anim. Sci. 16:103-107.
  31. Prins, R. A. and W. Van Hoven. 1977. Carbohydrate fermentation by the rumen cilia Isotricha prostoma. Protistologica. 13:549-556.
  32. Punia, B. S., J. Leibholtz and G. J. Faichney. 1987. The role of rumen protozoa in the utilization of paspalum hay by cattle. Br. J. Nutr. 57:395-406. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19870047
  33. Quionez, J. A., L. J. Bush, T. Nalsen and G. D. Adam. 1988. Effect of yeast culture on intake and production of dairy cows fed high wheat ration. J. Dairy Sci. 71 (Supp. 1) 275 (Abstr.). https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79555-7
  34. Ramprasad, J. and G. V. Raghavan. 1981. Note on the growth rate and body composition of faunated and defaunated lambs. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 51:570-572.
  35. Santra, A., Kamra, D. N. and Pathak, N. N. 1994a. Effect of defaunation on nutrient digestibilty and growth of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. International J. Anim. Sci. 9:185-187.
  36. Santra, A. and S. A. Karim. 1999. Efficacy of sodium laurel sulfate as defaunating agent in sheep and goats. International J. Anim. Sci. 14:167-171.
  37. Ushida, K. and J. P. Jouany. 1985. Effect of protozoa on rumen protein degradation in sheep. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 25:1075-1081. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19850807
  38. Ushida, K. and J. P. Jouany. 1990. Effect of defaunation on fibre digestion in sheep given two isonitrogenous diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 29:153-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(90)90101-D
  39. Wallace, R. J. and C. J. Newbold. 1992. Probiotics for Ruminants. In: Probiotics:The Scientific Basis (Ed. R. Fuller). Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 317.
  40. Williams, P. E. V., C. A. G. Tair, G. M. Innes and J. M. Newbold. 1990. Effects of inclusion of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cervisiae plus growth medium) in the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and forage degradation and fermentation patterns in the rumen of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3016-3026.
  41. Williams, P. E. V., C. A. G. Tait, G. M. Innes and C. J. Newbold. 1991. Effects of the inclusion of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cervisiae plus growth medium) in the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and forage degradation patterns in the rumen of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3016-3026. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6973016x
  42. Yoon, I. K. and M. D. Stem. 1996. Effect of Saccharomyces cervisiae and Aspergillus oryzae culture on ruminal fermentation in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79:411-417. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76380-4
  43. Bird, S. and R. A. Leng. 1984. Further studies of the effects of the presence or absence of protozoa in the rumen on live weight gain and wool growth of sheep. Br. J. Nut. 52:607-611. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19840127
  44. Flint, H. J. 1994. Molecular genetics of obligate anaerobes from the rumen. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 121: 259-267. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb07110.x
  45. Nagaraja, T. G., G. Towne and A. A. Beharka. 1992. Moderation of ruminal fermentation by ciliate protozoa in cattle fed a high grain diet. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58:2410-2414.
  46. Newman, K. E. and K. A. Dawson. 1987. Associative effects of probiotics and diet on ruminal fermentation. In: 19th Biennial Conference on Rumen Function, Chicago.
  47. Chang, H. 1996. Genetic engineering to enhance microbial interference and related therapeutic applications. Nature Biotecnol. 14:423-431.
  48. Girard, D., C. R. Jones and K. A. Dowson. 1993. Lactic acid utilization in rumen simulating cultures receiving a yeast culture supplement. J. Anim. Sci. 71 (Supp. 1) 288 (Abstr.).
  49. Jenney, B. F., H. J. Vandijk and J. A. Collins. 1991. Performance of faecal flora of calves fed Lactobacillus subtilis concentrate. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1968-1973. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78364-1
  50. MacRae, J. C. and G. E. Lobley. 1982. Some factors which influence thermal energy loss during the metabolism of ruminants. Livest. Prod. Sci. 9:477-479.
  51. Newbold, C. J., R. J. Wallace and F. M. McIntosh. 1996. Mode of action of the yeast, Saccharomyces cervisiae as a feed additives for ruminants. Br. J. Nutr. 76:249-261. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19960029
  52. Ushida, K., A. Miyazaki and R. Kawashima. 1986b. Effect of defaunation on ruminal gas and VFA production in vitro. Jap. J. Zootech Sci. 57:71-77.
  53. Wallace, R. J. 1996. The mode of action of yeast culture in modifying rumen fermentation. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons). Alltech Technical Publications, Nicholasville, Kentucky, pp. 217-231.
  54. Wallace, R. J., J. W. Czerkawski and G. Breckenridge. 1981. Effect of monensin on the fermentation of basal ration in rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). Br. J. Nutr. 46:131-148. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19810016
  55. Amos, H. E. and D. E. Akin. 1978. Rumen protozoal degradation of structurally intact forage tissue. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36:513-522.
  56. Jouany, J. P., B. Zainab, J. Senaud, C. A. Groliere, J. Grain and P. Thivend. 1981. Role of the rumen ciliate protozoa Polyplastron multivesiculatum, Entodinium spp. and Isotricha prostoma in the digestion of mixed diet in sheep. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 21:871-884. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19810701
  57. Kamra, D. N., N. Agarwal, L. C. Chaudhary, A. Sahoo and N. N. Pathak. 1997. Effect of feeding probiotic (Lactic acid producing bacteria) on the growth of coliform bacteria in the grastointestinal tract of crossbred calves. In: Proceeding of VIII Animal Nutrition Research Worker's Conference, Chennai, India, pp. 130-131.
  58. Santra. A. and R. C. Jakhmola. 1998. Effect of defaunation on animal productivity. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 14:103-116.
  59. Ushida, K., J. P. Jouany and P. Thivend. 1986a. Role of rumen protozoa on nitrogen digestion in sheep given two isonitrogenous diets. Br. J. Nutr. 56:407-419. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19860121
  60. Dominguez Bello, M. G. and A. Escobar. 1997. Rumen manipulation for the improved utilization of tropical forages. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 69:91-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)81625-2
  61. Ivan, M., D. des. Dayrell, S. Mahadevan and M. Hiderolou. 1992. Effect of bentonite on wool growth and nitrogen metabolism in fauna free and faunated sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3192-3202.
  62. Nisbet, D. J. and S. A. Martin. 1990. Effect of Yea-sacc1026 on lactate utilization by the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium. In: Biotechnology in feed industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons). Alltech Technical Publications, Nicholasville, Kentucky, pp. 563-567.
  63. Panda, A. K. 1994. Effect of yeast culture supplementation on performance and rumen fermentation in crossbred calves. M. V. Sc Thesis. Indian Veterinary Research Institute (Deemed University), Izatnagar, India.
  64. Agarwal, Neeta. 2002. Microbial feed additives for ruminants. In: Recent Advances in Rumen Microbiology (Ed. D. N. Kamra, Neeta Agarwal, L. C. Chaudhary and D. K. Agrawal). IVRI Publication, Izatnagar, India, pp. 47-56.
  65. Cook, R. A. 1976. Urease activity in the rumen of sheep and distribution of ureolytic bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 92:32-49. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-92-1-32
  66. Demeyer, D. I. 1992. Biotechnology and the quality of animal products in sustainable agriculture. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 1:65-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.1992.9705912
  67. Moloney, A. P. and M. J. Drennan. 1994. The influence of the basal diet on the effects of yeast culture on ruminal fermentation and digestibility in steers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 50:55-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)90009-4
  68. Newbold, C. J., R. J. Wallace and F. M. McIntosh. 1993. The stimulation of rumen bacteria by Saccharomyces cervisiae is dependent on the respiratory activity of the years. J. Anim. Sci. 71 (Supp. 1) 280 (Abstr.).
  69. Windham, W. R. and D. E. Akin. 1984. Rumen fungi and forage fibre degradation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:473-476.
  70. Attwood, G. Y., D. L. R. Gordon, J. P. Ue and J. D. Brooker. 1988. Use of a unique gene sequence as a probe to enumerate a strain of Bactericides ruminocola introduced into rumen. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:534-5441.
  71. Bryant, M. P. and I. M. Robinson. 1963. Apparent incorporation of ammonia and amino acid carbon during growth of selected species of rumen bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 46:150-154. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(63)88991-2
  72. Edwards, I. E., T. Mutsvanga, J. H. Topps and G. F. M. Patterson. 1990. The effect of supplemental yeast culture (YEA-SACC) on patterns of rumen fermentation and growth performance of intensively fed bulls. Anim. Prod. Abstr. 579A
  73. Jansen, D. H. 1975. Ecology of plants in the tropics. In: Studies in Biology (Ed. E. Arnold). No. 58, Uk, pp. 66.
  74. Lee, S. S., J. K. Ha and K. J. Cheng. 2000. Influence of an anaerobic fungal culture administration on in ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 88:201-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00216-9
  75. Smet, De. S., D. I. Demeyer and C. J. Van Nevel. 1992. Effect of defaunation and hay:concentrate ratio on fermentation, fibre digestion and passage in the rumen of sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 37:333-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(92)90016-Y
  76. Weimer, Paul J. 1998. Manipulating ruminal fermentation: A microbial ecological perspective. J. Anim. Sci. 76:3114-3122. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.76123114x
  77. Fuller, R. 1989. A Review: Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66:365-378. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1989.tb05105.x
  78. Huber, J. T., J. Sullivan, B. Taylor, A. Burgos and S. Gramer. 1990. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons), Alltech Technical Publications, Nicholasville, KY. pp. 35-38.
  79. Miles, R. D. and S. M. Bootwalla. 1991. Direct fed microbials in animal production. In: Direct Fed Microbials in Animal Production. Natl. Feed Ingred. Assoc., West Des Moines, IA.
  80. Panda, A. K., R. Singh and N. N. Pathak. 1995. Effect of dietary inclusion of Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth performance of crossbred calves. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 7:195-200. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.1995.9706071
  81. Saha, S. K., S. Senani, M. K. Padhi, B. R. Shome, Rajeswari. Shome and S. P. S. Ahlawal. 1999. Microbial manipulation of rumen fermentation using Saccharomyces cervisiae as probiotics. Current Sciences. 77:696-697.
  82. Skrivonova, V. and L. Machanova. 1990. The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus on differently developed ruminant stomach of bovine and buffalo calves. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 41:922-924.
  83. Bird, S. H. and R. A. Leng. 1985. Productivity response to eliminating protozoa from the rumen of sheep. Rev. Rural Sci. 6:109-117.
  84. Bird, S. H., B. Rommulo and R. A. Leng. 1994. Effects of lucerne supplementation and defaunation on feed intake, digestibilty, N retention and productivity of sheep fed straw based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 45:119-129.
  85. Cruywagen, C. W., I. Jordan and L. Venter. 1996. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation of milk replacer on pre weaning performance of calves. J. Dairy Sci. 79:483-486. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76389-0
  86. Dawson, K. A. 1989. Modification of rumen function and animal production using live microbial cultures as feed supplements. In: Proceeding of California Animal Nutrition Conference, Centre Plaza, Holiday Inn, Fresno, California, pp. 25-43.
  87. Orpin, C. G. and Letcher, A. J. 1983/84. Effect of absence of ciliate protozoa on rumen fluid volume, flow rate and microbial population in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:145-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(84)90004-X
  88. Santra, A., D. N. Kamra, N. N. Pathak and M. Y. Khan. 1994b. Effect of protozoa on the loss of energy in murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Buffalo J. 3:249-253.
  89. Wallace, R. J. 1994. Rumen microbiology, biotechnology and ruminant nutrition: prospects and problems. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2992-3003. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72112992x
  90. Abu-Tarboush, H. M., M. Y. Al-Saiady and A. H. Keir El-Din. 1996. Evaluation of diet containing lactobacillus on performance, faecal coliform and lactobacillus of young dairy calves. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:39-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00850-0
  91. El Hassan, S. M., C. J. Newbold and R. J. Wallace. 1993. The effect of yeast culture on rumen fermentation:growth of the yeast in the rumen and the requirement of viable yeast cells. Anim. Prod. 56:463 (Abstr.).
  92. Higginbotham, G. E. and D. L. Bath. 1993. Evaluation of lactobacillus fermentation cultures in calf feeding system. J. Dairy Sci. 76:615-620. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77382-8
  93. Jonecova, Z., R. Nemcova and V. Kmet. 1992. Effect of yeast cells and lactobacilli on rumen fermentation in sheep. Zivocsna Vypeoba. 37:771-776.
  94. Jones, R. J. and R. G. Megarrity. 1983. Comparative toxicity responses of goat fed on Leucaena leucocephala in Australian and Hawaii (USA). Aust. J. Agric. Res. 34:781-790. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9830781
  95. Owens, N. F. and R. Zinn. 1988. Protein metabolism of ruminant animals. In: The Ruminant Animal Digestive Physiology and Nutrition (Ed. D. C. Chruch), Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 227-249.
  96. Santra, A. and S. A. Karim. 2000. Growth performance of faunated and defaunated Malpura weaner lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 86:251-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00161-9
  97. Bird, S. H., M. K. Hill and R. A. Leng. 1979. The effects of defaunation of the rumen on the growth of lambs on low protein high energy diets. Br. J. Nut. 42:81-87. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19790091
  98. Brock, F. M., C. W. Forsberg and S. J. G. Buchman. 1982. Proteolytic activity of rumen micro-organisms and effect of proteinase inhibitors. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:561-569.
  99. Dawson, K. A. and K. E. Newman. 1987. Fermentation in rumen simulating continuous culture receiving probiotics supplements. J. Anim. Sci. 66 (Supp. 1) 500 (Abstr.).
  100. Erdman, R. A. and B. K. Sharma. 1989. Effect of yeast culture and sodium bicarbonate on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1929-1932. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79312-7
  101. Forano, E. 1991. Recent progress in genetic manipulation of rumen microbes. In: Ruminant Microbial Metabolism and Ruminant Digestion (Ed. J. P. Jouany). INRA Editions, France, pp. 89-103.
  102. Hristova, A. N., M. Ivan, L. M. Rode and T. A. McAllister. 2001. Fermentation characteristics and rumen ciliate protozoal populations in cattle fed medium or high barley based diet. J. Anim. Sci. 79:515-524. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.792515x
  103. Newbold, C. J., F. M. McIntosh and R. J. Wallace. 1998. Changes in the microbial population of a rumen simulating fermenter in response to yeast culture. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 78:241-244. https://doi.org/10.4141/A97-086
  104. Oellermann, S. O., M. J. Arambel, B. A. Kent and J. L. Walters. 1990. Effect of graded amounts of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on ruminal characteristics and nutrient digestibility in cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2412-2416.
  105. Onodera, R., N. Yamasaki and K. Murakami. 1988. Effect of inhabitation by ciliate protozoa on the digestion of fibrous materials in vivo in the rumen of goats and in vitro rumen microbial ecosystem. Agric. Biol. Chem. 52:2635-2637. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.52.2635
  106. Smith, C.J. and R. B. Hespell. 1983. Prospects for the development and use of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid techniques with ruminal bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 66:1536-1546. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(83)81970-5
  107. Jones, R. J. and R. G. Megarrity. 1986. Sucessful transfer of dihydroxypyridine-degading bacteria from Hawaiian (USA) goats to Australain ruminants to overcome the toxicity of leucaena. Aust. Vet. J. 63:259-262. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1986.tb02990.x
  108. Singh, R., L. C. Chaudhary, D. N. Kamra and N. N. Pathak. 1998. Effect of dietary supplementation with yeast cell suspension (Saccharomyces cervisiae) on nutrient utilization and growth response in crossbred calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 11:268-271.
  109. Adams, D. C., M. L. Galyean, H. E. Kiesling, J. D. Wallace and M. D. Finker. 1981. Influence of viable yeast culture, sodium bicarbonate and monensin on liquid dilution rate, rumen fermentation and feedlot performance of growing steers and digestibility in lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 53:780-789. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1981.533780x
  110. Erasmus, L. J., P. M. Botha and A. Kistner. 1992. Effect of yeast culture supplement on production, rumen fermentation and duodenal nitrogen flow in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3056-3065. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78069-2
  111. Frumholtz, P. P., C. J. Newbold and R. J. Wallace. 1989. Influence of Aspergillus orygae extract on fermentation of basal ration in the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). J. Agric. Sci. 113:169-172. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185960008672X
  112. Gunter, K. D. 1989. European association of Animal production, 40 th Meeting, Dublin, Vol. 1, pp. 372.
  113. Itabashi, H., T. Kobayashi, R. Morii and S. Okamoto. 1982. Effect of ciliate protozoa on the concentration of rumen and duodenal volatile fatty acid and plasma glucose and insulin after feeding. Bull. Nat. Inst. Anim. Ind. (Japan), 39:21-32.
  114. Kurihara, Y., T. Takechi and F. Shibata. 1978. Relationship between bacteria and ciliate protozoa in the rumen of sheep fed purified diet. J. Agric. Sci. 90:373-381. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600055489
  115. Williams, P. E. V. and C. J. Newbold. 1990. Rumen probiosis: The effect of novel microorganisms on ruminal fermentation and ruminant productivity. In: Recent advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. W. Haresign and D. J. A. Cole). Butterworths, London, England.
  116. Dawson, K. A. 1992. Current and future role of yeast culture in animal production: A review of research over the last six years. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons), Alltech Technical Publications, Nicholasville, KY.
  117. Dutta, T. K., S. S. Kundu and D. D. Sharma. 2001. Potential of probiotic supplementation on in vitro rumen fermentation and 35S incorporation in microbial protein. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 18: 227-234.
  118. Fondevila, M., C. J. Newbold, P. M. Hotten and E. R. Orskov. 1990. A note on the effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the rumen fermentation of sheep given straw. Anim. Prod. 51:422-425. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100005584
  119. Harrison, G. A., R. W. Hemken, K. A. Dawson, R. J. Harmon and K. B. Barker. 1988. Influence of addition of yeast culture supplement to diets of lactating cows on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2967-2975. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79894-X
  120. Malcolm, K. J. and H. E. Kiesling. 1990. Effects of whole cottonseed and live yeast culture on ruminal fermentation and fluid passage rate in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1965-1970.
  121. Van Hoven, W. and R. A. Prins. 1977. Carbohydrate fermentation by the rumen ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium. Protistologiaca. 13:599-606.
  122. Williams, A. G. and G. S. Coleman. 1992. The rumen protozoa. New York, Springer-Verlag.
  123. Kamra, D. N., N. N. Pathak and R. Singh. 1987. Role of ciliate protozoa on digestion in ruminants. Livestock Adviser. 12:9-12.
  124. Leng, R. A. 1982. Dynamics of protozoa in the rumen of sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 48:399-415. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19820123
  125. Nhan, N. T. H., N. V. Hon, M. T. Ngu, N. T. Von, T. R. Preston and R. A. Leng. 2001. Practical application of defaunation of cattle on farms in Vietnam: Response of young cattle fed rice straw and grass to a single drench of ground nut oil. Aisan-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 14:485-490.
  126. Stewart, C. S., G. Fonty and Ph. Gouet. 1988. The establishment of rumen microbial communities. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 21:69-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(88)90093-4
  127. Wallace, R. J. and C. J. Newbold. 1993. Rumen fermentation and its manipulation: The development of yeast culture as feed additives. In: Biotechnology in the Feed industry (Ed. R. Fuller). Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 173.
  128. Forsberg, C. W., K. J. Cheng, P. J. Krell and J. P. Phillips. 1993. Establishment of rumen microbial gene pools and their manipulation to benefit digestion by domestic animals. In: Proceeding of the Seventh World Conference on Animal Production, Edmonton, Alberta, Vol. 1. pp. 281-316.
  129. Kumar, U., V. K. Sareen and S. Singh. 1994. Effect of Saccharomyces cervisiae yeast culture supplement on ruminal metabolism in buffalo calves given a high concentrate diet. Anim. Prod. 59:209-215. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100007698
  130. Santra., A and S. A. Karim. 2002a. Influence of ciliate protozoa on biochemical changes and hydrolytic enzyme profile in the rumen ecosystem. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92:801-811. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01583.x
  131. Voronin, E. S., L-Ya. Stavtseva and T. N. Gryazneva. 1990. Prevention and treatment of diarrhoea in newborn calves. Veterinariya Moskkva. 3:35-37.
  132. Walli, T. K. 1994. Role of yeast culture in rumen ecosystem and animal performance. International J. Anim. Sci. 9:117-121.
  133. Williams, A. G. and E. Susan. Withers. 1991. Effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of poysaccharide-degrading enzymes and fibre breakdown in the rumen ecosystem. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 70:144-145. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1991.tb04440.x
  134. Eadie, J. M. and J. C. Gill. 1971. The effect of the absence of rumen ciliate protozoa on growing lambs fed on roughage and concentrate diet. Br. J. Nutr. 26:155-167. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19710022
  135. Kopecny, J., J. Simunek, G. I. Kalacnjuk, O. G. Savka, M. G. Gerasimiv and B. Leskovic. 1989. Testing the probiotic effect of selected rumen bacteria. Zivocisna Vyroba. 34:205-214.
  136. Sen. A. R., S. A. Karim and A. Santra. 2000. Effect of defaunation on carcass and meat characteristics of finisher lambs. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 70:659-661.
  137. Jouany, J. P. 1978. Contribution a l'etude des protozoaries cilies de rumen: leur dynamique, leur role dans la digestion et leur interct pour le ruminant. These de Doctorat, Universite de Clermont II, no d'Ordre 256, Vol. 2, pp. 195.
  138. Kayouli, C., C. J. Van Nevel and D. I. Demeyer. 1983. Effect de la defaunation du rumen sur la de-gradibilite des proteins de saja mesure in sacco. In: IVth Interantional Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Vol. II. Lee Colloques de I'INRA16, INRA edn., pp. 251-254.
  139. Mendoza, M. G. D., R. A. Britton and R. A. Stock. 1993. Influence of ruminal protozoa on site and extent of starch digestion and ruminal fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1572-1578. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7161572x
  140. Onodera, R., Y. Nakagawa and M. Kandatsu. 1977. Ureolytic activity of the washed suspension of rumen ciliate protozoa. Agric. Biol. Chem. 41:2177-2182. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.41.2177
  141. Abe, F., N. Ishibashi and S. Shimamura. 1995. Effect of administration of Bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria to new born calves and piglets. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2838-2846. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76914-4
  142. Demeyer, D. I., C. J. Van Nevel and G. Van de Voorde. 1982. The effect of defaunation on the growth of lambs fed three urea containing diets. Arch. Tierernaehr. Tierz. 32:595-603. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450398209435887
  143. Itabashi, H., T. Koyabashi and Matsumoto, M. 1984. The effects of rumen ciliate protozoa on energy metabolism and some constituents in rumen fluid and blood plasma of goats. Jap. J. Zootech. Sci. 55:248-255.
  144. Jouany, J. P., D. I. Demeyer and J. Grain. 1988. Effect of defaunating the rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 21:229-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(88)90105-8
  145. Mathieu, F., J. P. Jouany, J. Senaud, J. Bohatier, G. Bertin and M. Mercier. 1996. The effect of Saccharomyces cervisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on fermentation in the rumen of faunated and defaunated sheep: protozoal and probiotic interaction. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 36:271-287. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19960305
  146. Plata, F., G. D. Mendoza, J. R. Barcena-Gama and S. Gonzalez. 1994. Effect of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cervisiae) on neutral detergent fibre digestion in steers fed oat straw based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 49:203-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)90046-9
  147. Santra, A., D. N. Kamra and N. N. Pathak. 1996. Influence of ciliate protozoa on biochemical changes and hydrolytic enzymes in the rumen of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Buffalo J. 1:95-100.
  148. Sharma, D. D. and R. Malik. 1992. Probiotic supplementation in animal feed. In: Proceeding of National Symposium on Role of Amino Acid and Feed Supplementation in Animal Feeds, Trivendum, India.
  149. Williams, A. G. and G. S. Coleman. 1988. The rumen protozoa. In: The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem (Ed. P. N. Hobson). London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 77-128.
  150. Burning, C. L. and M. T. Yokoyama. 1988. Characteristics of live and killed brewer's yeast slurries and intoxication by intraruminal administration to cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 66:585-591.
  151. Dawson, K. A. 1990. Designing the yeast culture of tomorrow: Mode of action of yeast culture for ruminants and non ruminants. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons). Alltech Technical Publications, Nicholasville, KY.
  152. Minson, D. J. 1980. Nutritional differences between tropical and temperate pasture. In: Grazing Animals (Ed. F. H. W. Marely). Elsevier, Amesterdam, pp. 143-157.
  153. Mutsvangwa, T., I. E. Edwards, J. H. Topps and G. F. M. Paterson. 1992. The effect of dietary inclusion of yeast culture (Yea-Sac) on pattern of rumen fermentation, food intake and growth of intensively fed bulls. Anim. Prod. 55:35-40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100037247
  154. Widmeier, R. D., M. J. Arambel and J. A. Walter. 1987. Effect of yeast culture and Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on ruminal characteristics and nutrient digestibility. J. Dairy. Sci. 70:2063-2068. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80254-0
  155. Chademana, L. and N. W. Offer. 1990. The effect of dietary inclusion of yeast culture on digestion in the sheep. Anim. Prod. 50:483-489. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100004967
  156. Kreuzer, H. 1986. Methods and application of defaunation in the growing ruminant. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 33:723-745.
  157. Fallon, R. J. and F. J. Harte. 1987. The effect of yeast culture inclusion in the concentrate diet on calf performances. J. Dairy Sci. 70 (Supp. 1) 126 (Abstr.).
  158. Lindsay, J. R. and J. P. Hogan. 1972. Digestion of two legumes and rumen bacterial growth in defaunated sheep. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 23:321-330. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9720321
  159. Santra., A and S. A. Karim. 2002b. Nutrient utilization and growth performance of defaunated and faunated lambs maintained on complete diets containing varying proportion of roughage and concentrate. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. (In press).
  160. Schwab, C. G., J. J. Moore, P. M. Hoyt and J. H. Prentice. 1980. Performance and faecal flora of calves fed a nonviable Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentation product. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1412-1423. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83098-0
  161. Agarwal, Neeta., N. Kewalramani, D. N. Kamra, D. K. Agrawal and K. Nath. 1991. Hydrolytic enzymes of buffalo rumen: Comparison of cell free rumen fluid, bacterial and protozoal fractions. Buff. J. 2:203-207.
  162. Becker, E. R. and R. C. Everett. 1930. Comparative growth of normal and infusoria free lambs. Am. J. Hyj. 11:362-370.
  163. Dawson, K. A., K. E. Newman and J. A. Boling. 1990. Effect of microbial supplements containing yeast and lactobacilli on roughage-fed ruminal microbial activities. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3392-3398.
  164. Hammond, A. D., M. J. Allison, M. J. Williams, G. M. Prine and D. B. Bates. 1989. Prevention of leucaena toxicosis of cattle in Florida by ruminal inoculation with 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridone degrading bacteria. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50:2176-2180.
  165. Pandey, Poonam. and I. S. Agarwal. 2001. Nutrient utilization and growth response in crossbred calves fed antibiotic and probiotic supplement diet. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 18:15-18.
  166. Veira, D. M., M. Ivan and P. Y. Jui. 1983. Rumen ciliate protozoa: effects on digestion in the stomach of sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 66:1015-1022. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(83)81896-7
  167. Demeyer, D. I. 1981. Rumen microbes and digestion of plant cell walls. Agric. Environ. 6:295-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-1131(81)90020-5
  168. Maurya, M. S., R., Singh, N. N. Pathak and D. N. Kamra. 1993. Effect of feeding live yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae) on nutrient digestibility in goats. In: Proceeding of Sixth Animal nutrition Research Workers Conference, Bhubaneswar, India, pp. 142.
  169. Newbold, C. J. and D. G. Chamberlain. 1988. Lipid as rumen defaunating agent. Pproc. Nutr. Soc. UK. 47:154A
  170. Putnam, D. E., C. G. Schwab, M. T. Socha, N. L. Whitehouse, N. A. Kierstead and B. D. Garthwaite. 1997. Effect of yeast culture in the diet of early lactation dairy cows on ruminal fermentation and passage of nitrogen fraction and amino acid to small intestine. J. Dairy Sci. 80:374-384. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75947-2
  171. Rowe, J. B., A. Davies and A. W. J. Broome. 1985. Quantitative effect of defaunation on rumen fermentation and digestion in sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 54:105-119. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19850097

Cited by

  1. Effect of defaunation on body conformation changes, wool yield and fibre characteristics of growing lambs in a hot semiarid environment vol.47, pp.7, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1071/EA05106
  2. Effect of yeast supplementation on the growth performance of Malpura lambs vol.45, pp.2, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0257-3
  3. Dietary inclusion effects of phytochemicals as growth promoters in animal production vol.59, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0133-9
  4. Poultry manure as a protein supplement in indigenous goat production in Zimbabwe vol.9, pp.9, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2018.0492