DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Amylase and Cellulase Supplementation in Sorghum-based Diets for Finishing Pigs

  • Park, J.S. ;
  • Kim, I.H. ;
  • Hancock, J.D. ;
  • Hines, R.H. ;
  • Cobb, C. ;
  • Cao, H. ;
  • Hong, J.W. ;
  • Kwon, O.S.
  • Received : 2002.06.18
  • Accepted : 2002.10.14
  • Published : 2003.01.01

Abstract

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of a sorghum-specific enzyme system, derived from an Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis fermentation extract (carbohydrase activity of 1,650 $\alpha$-amylase units and cellulase activity of 30 fibrinolytic units/mL), on growth performance of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1,192 pigs (average initial BW of 46.1 kg) were fed sorghum-based diets without or with 360 mL of enzyme system per ton of sorghum in a 78 d growth assay. For d 0 to 39, gain/feed was improved (p<0.03) with enzyme supplementation, but ADG was not affected (p>0.15). For d 39 to 78 and overall (d 0 to 78), ADG, gain/feed, and digestibilities of DM and N were not affected (p>0.13) by enzyme supplementation. Backfat thickness, fat-free lean index, and scores for stomach keratinization and ulcers also were not affected (p>0.15) by the dietary treatments. In Exp. 2,168 pigs (average initial BW of 58.4 kg) were fed diets without or with 150, 300, or 450 mL/ton of the same enzyme system used in Exp. 1. Adding as much as 450 mL enzyme system / ton of sorghum did not affect (p>0.15) ADG or gain/feed for d 0 to 29 of the growth assay. However, during d 29 to 63, ADG increased by 11% (linear effect, p<0.02) and gain/feed increased by 10% (linear effect, p<0.06) as enzyme concentration was increased from none to 450 mL/ton of sorghum. For the overall period (d 0 to 63), ADG tended to increase (p<0.08) with enzyme supplementation, but gain/feed and digestibilities of DM and N were not affected (p>0.14). Carcass characteristics (dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and fat free lean index) also were not affected (p>0.20) by addition of the enzyme system. In Exp. 3,176 pigs (average initial BW of 46.7 kg) were fed diets without or with 450, 900, or 1,350 mL/ton of the same enzyme system used in Exp. 1 and 2 in a 71 d growth assay. Adding up to 1,350 mL/ton of enzyme had no effects (p>0.15) on ADG, gain/feed, digestibilities of DM and N, and carcass characteristics (dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and fat-free lean index). In conclusion, finishing pigs fed diets with a sorghum-specific enzyme system showed some positive trends for improved growth performance, but those effects were not large and (or) consistent.

Keywords

Sorghum;Cellulase;Amylase;Growth;Carcass;Stomach;Pig

References

  1. Berruecos, J. M. and O. W. Robison. 1972. Inheritance of gastric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 35:20-28.
  2. Burnett, G. and E. Neil. 1964. The influence of processing and of certain crude enzyme preparations on the utilization of cereals by pigs. Anim. Prod. 6:237-244. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000335610002198X
  3. Graham, H., J. G. Fadel, C. W. Newman and R. K. Newman. 1989. Effect of pelleting and $\beta$-glucanase supplementation on the ileal and fecal digestibility of a barley-based diet in the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 67:1293-1298.
  4. Lewis, C. J., D. V. Catron, G. H. Liu, V. C. Speer and G. C. Ashton. 1955. Enzyme supplementation of baby pig diets. J. Agric. Food Chem. 3:1047-1052. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60058a012
  5. Li, S., W. C. Sauer, S. X. Hauang and V. M. Gabert. 1996. Effects of $\beta$-glucanase supplementation to ulless barley- or wheatsoybean meal diets on the digestibilites of energy, protein, $\beta$-glucans, and Amino acids in young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1649-1656
  6. Moran, E. T. 1982. Starch digestion in fowl. Poult. Sci. 61:1257-1267. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0611257
  7. Muggenburg, B. A., S. H. McNutt and T. Kowalczyk. 1964. Pathology of gastric ulcers in swine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 25:1354-1365.
  8. Steel, R. G. D., J. H. Torrie and D. A. Dickey. 1997. Principle and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach (3rd Ed.). McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York.
  9. Thacker, P. A., G. L. Campbell and J. W. D. GrootWassink. 1988. The effect of beta-glucanase supplementation on the performance of pigs fed hulless barley. Nutr. Rept. Int. 38:91-97.
  10. Tobey, J. F., S. MacGee, C. W. Cobb and W. Cortner. 1997. Enzymatic grain conditioner and methods of using it. U. S. Pat. No. 5,662,901, Washington, DC.
  11. Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, K. C. Behnke, R. H. Hines and C. R. Stark. 1995c. Effects of mill type and particle size uniformity on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and stomach morphology in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2564-2573.
  12. Mellange, J., J. Inborr and B. P. Gill. 1992. Enzyme supplementation of wheat, barley, or sugar-beet pulp based diets for early weaned piglets: effects on performance and fecal nutrient digestibility. Anim. Prod. 54:438(Abstr.).
  13. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis (16th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
  14. Healy, B. J., J. D. Hancock, G. A. Kennedy, P. J. Bramel-Cox, K. C. Behnke and R. H. Hines. 1994. Optimum particle size of corn and hard and soft sorghum grain for nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2227-2236.
  15. Arentson, R. A. and D. R. Zimmerman. 1991. True digestibilites of amino acids and protein in pigs using 13C as a label to determine endogenous amino acid excretion. P38. ISU Swine Report ASL-R952. Iowa State Univ. Des Moines. IA.
  16. Pickett, R. A., W. H. Fugate, R. B. Harrington, T. W. Perry and T. M. Curtin. 1969. Influence of feed preparation and number of pigs per pen on growth performance and occurrence of esophagogastric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 28:837-842.
  17. Johnston, S. L., J. D. Hancock, R. H. Hines, G. A. Kennedy, S. L. Traylor, B. J. Chae and In K. Han. 1999b. Effects of expander conditioning of corn- and sorghum-based diets on pellet quality and performance in finishing pigs and lactating sows. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:565-572.
  18. Dierick, N. A. and J. A. Decuypere. 1994. Enzymes and growth in pigs. In: Principles of Pigs Science (Ed. D. J. A. Cole, J. Wiseman and M. A. Varley). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK. pp. 169-195.
  19. NPPC. 1996. User's Guide: Fat-free lean index. National Pork Producers Council, Des Moines, IA.
  20. Lindemann, M. D., S. G. Cornelius, S. M. El Kandelgy, R. L. Moser and J. E. Pettigrew. 1986. Effect of age, weaning and diet on digestive enzyme levels in piglet. J. Anim. Sci. 62:1298-1307.
  21. Kim, I. H., J. D. Hancock, R. H. Hines, and C. S. Kim. 1998. Effects of cellulase and bacterial feed additives on the nutritional value of sorghum grain for finishing pigs. Asain-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 11:538-544.
  22. Bedford, M. R., J. F. Patience, H. L. Classen and J. Inborr. 1992. The effect of dietary enzyme supplemetation of rye- and barley-based diets on digestion and subsequent performance in weanling pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 72:97-105. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas92-011
  23. NRC. 1988. Nutrient Requirements of Swine (9th Ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  24. ASAE. 1995. Method of determining and expressing fineness of feed materials by sieving. ASAE Standard S319.2, Agricultural Engineers Yearbook of Standards. American Association of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 461-462.
  25. Mahan, D. C., R. A. Pickett, T. W. Perry, T. M. Curtin, W. R. Featherston and W. M. Beeson. 1966. Influence of various nutritional factors abd physical form of feed on esophagogastric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 25:1019-1023. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1966.2541019x
  26. Graham, H., K. Hesselman, E. Jonsson and P. A man. 1986. Influences of $\beta$-glucanase supplementation of barley-based diet in the pig gastrointestinal tract. Nutr. Rep. Int. 34:1089-1096.
  27. Williams, C. H., D. J. David and O. Iismaa. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in feces by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J. Agric. Sci. 59:381-389. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185960001546X
  28. Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, K. C. Behnke, R. H. Hines and C. R. Stark. 1995b. Effects of particle size and pelleting on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and stomach morphology in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:757-763.
  29. Johnston, S. L., R. H. Hines, J. D. Hancock, K.C. Behnke, S. L. Traylor, B. J. Chae, and In K. Han. 1999a. Effects of conditioner (standard, long-term and expander) on pellet quality and growth performance in nursery and finishing pigs. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:558-564.
  30. Riker, J. T., III, T. W. Perry, R. A. Pickett and T. M. Curtin. 1967. Influence of various grains on the incidence of esophogogastric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 26:731-735.
  31. Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, G. A. Kennedy, R. H. Hines and K. C. Behnke. 1995a. Reducing particle size of corn in lactation diets from 1,200 to 400 micrometer improves sow and litter performance. J. Anim. Sci. 73:421-426.
  32. Han, M. S. and Froseth. 1993. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the utilization of high and low quality barley in pigs as measured by the mobile nylon bag technique. J. Anim. Sci 71 (Suppl. 1):180(Abstr.).
  33. SAS. 1996. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Statistics (Version 6.12 Ed). SAS Institute. Inc., Cary, NC.

Cited by

  1. Processing of ingredients and diets and effects on nutritional value for pigs vol.8, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-017-0177-1
  2. Effect of enzymes, flavor and organic acids on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing dehydrated lucerne meal vol.89, pp.1, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3415