Effects of Moist Extruded Full-fat Soybeans on Gut Morphology and Mucosal Cell Turnover Time of Weanling Pigs

  • Qiao, Shiyan (Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Center, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Li, Defa (Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Center, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Jiang, Jianyang (Laiyang Agricultural College) ;
  • Zhou, Hongjie (Institute of Atomic Energy, China Academy of Agriculture Science) ;
  • Li, Jingsu (Institute of Atomic Energy, China Academy of Agriculture Science) ;
  • Thacker, P.A. (Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan)
  • Received : 2002.03.05
  • Accepted : 2002.07.22
  • Published : 2003.01.01


Ten barrows, weaned at 28 days (7.2$\pm$0.1 kg BW), were used to evaluate the effects of feeding extruded full-fat soybeans on intestinal morphology and mucosal cell turnover time. All pigs were fed corn-based diets with half of the pigs receiving diets supplemented with 15.5% soybean meal and 3% soybean oil and the remaining pigs fed a diet in which the soybean meal and oil were replaced by 18.5% extruded full-fat soybeans. The pigs were individually placed in $80{\times}150cm$ metabolic cages and fed twice daily an amount approximately equal to their ad libitum intake for a period of 14 days. On day 14, pigs were weighed and then injected intraperitoneally with $^3$H]thymidine ($100{\mu}Ci/kg$ of BW, specific activity 20 Ci/mmol) 6 h after the morning meal. A pig from each treatment was killed 1, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h postinjection and intestinal tissues were collected. Daily gains for pigs fed the soybean diet and extruded full-fat soybean diet were 0.24 and 0.31 kg/day (p=0.05) with feed conversions of 1.58 and 1.39 (p=0.05), respectively. In comparison with pigs fed soybean meal, pigs fed moist extruded full-fat soybeans had a decreased crypt depth in their duodenum and cecum (p<0.1), while the villus height in the mid jejunum and ileum and the total height (villus height plus crypt depth) of the ileum and mid jejunum increased (p<0.05). The villus width in the duodenum and mid jejunum decreased (p<0.05). The number of crypt epithelial cells in the upper jejunum increased but decreased in the ileum, colon and cecum (p<0.05). The number of villus epithelial cells in the ileum and the upper and mid jejunum increased (p<0.05). The time for migration of epithelial cells in the crypt-villus column decreased (p<0.05) in all sites except the upper jejunum, ileum and cecum. The mucosal turnover rate for all intestinal sites except the upper jejunum, colon and cecum decreased (p<0.05). From these data, we conclude that inclusion of moist extruded full-fat soybeans in weanling pig diets can improve the intestinal morphology and slow the migration rate and turnover time of epithelial cells of the small intestine, especially in the mid jejunum compared with soybean meal.


Extruded Soybeans;Intestinal Morphology;Cell Turnover Time;Weanling Pigs


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