Effects of Surfactant Tween 80 on Forage Degradability and Microbial Growth on the In vitro Rumen Mixed and Pure Cultures

  • Goto, M. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University) ;
  • Bae, H. (Kyonggi Provincial Government) ;
  • Lee, S.S. (National livestock Institute) ;
  • Yahaya, M.S. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University) ;
  • Karita, S. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University) ;
  • Wanjae, K. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University) ;
  • Cheng, K.J. (Department of Microbiology, University of British Columbia)
  • Received : 2002.09.02
  • Accepted : 2003.01.08
  • Published : 2003.05.01


Effect of a surfactant Tween 80 on the bacterial growth in the rumen was examined on the in vitro pure cultures of Streptococcus bovis, Selenomonas ruminantium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola, Megasphaera elsidenni, Fibrobacta succinogenes, Ruminanococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Dry matter degradability (DMD), concentrations and compositions of volatile fatty acids (VFA), and the most probable number (MPN) of cellulolytic bacteria and total number of bacteria in the presence of Tween 80 were also examined on the in vitro rumen mixed culture either with barley grain or orchardgrass hay. The growth of S. bovis, S. ruminantium, B. fibrisolvens, P. ruminicola, M. elsidenni and F. succinogenes were significantly higher (p<0.05) at over 0.05% concentrations of Tween 80 than those of the control cultures, while was not changed with R. albus and R. flavefaciens. With rumen mixed culture the DMD of barley grain and orchardgrass hay was significantly higher (p<0.05) at a 0.2% concentration of Tween 80 than the control, being reflected in the significantly higher (p<0.05) VFA production (mmol $g^{-1}$DDM) with orchardgrass hay. The higher (p<0.05) ratio of propionate to acetate at a 0.2% concentration of Tween 80 was also observed with orchardgrass hay, showing a similar trend with barley grain. No changes in the total bacterial number and MPN of cellulolytic bacteria were observed.


  1. Dehority, B. A. 1965. Degradation and utilization of isolated hemicellulose by pure cultures of cellulolytic rumen bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 89:1515-1520.
  2. Duff, G. C., M. L. Galyean and M. E. Branine. 1995. Effects of adaptation to lasalocid, monensin or a daily rotation of lasalocid and monensin on in vitro fermentation of a 90% concentrate diet. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:129-134.
  3. Goto, M., K. Takabe and I. Abe. 1998. Histochemistry and UVmicrospectrometry of cell walls of untreated and ammoniatreated barley straw. Can. J. Plant Sci. 78:437-443.
  4. Kim, M. H., S. B. Lee and D. Y. Ryu. 1982. Surface deactivation of cellulase and its prevention. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 4: 99-103.
  5. Steel, R. G. D., J. H. Torrie. 1980. Practical and procedures of statistics, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp.9-13.
  6. Hino, T., K. K. Shimada and T. Maruyama. 1994. Substrate preference in a strain of Megasphaera elsdenii, a ruminal bacterium, and its implications in propionate production and growth competition. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 1827-1831.
  7. Bryant, M. P. and L. A. Burkey. 1953. Cultural methods and some characteristics of some of the more numerous groups of bacteria in the bovine rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 36:205-217.
  8. Ooshima, H., M. Sakata and Y. Harano. 1986. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by surfactant. Biotechnol. Bioengi. 28: 1727-1734.
  9. Fendler, J. and E. Fendler. 1975. Catalysis in Micellar and Macromolecular Systems. Academic Press, New York.
  10. Goto, M., Y. Yokoe, K. Takabe, S. Nishikawa and O. Morita. 1993. Effects of gaseous ammonia on chemical and structural features of cell walls in spring barley straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 40:207-221.
  11. Aksenova, L. A., M. V. Dunaeva, E. A. Zak, U. F. Osipov and N. L. Klyachko. 1994. The effect of Tween 80 on seed germination in winter wheat cultivars differing in drought resistance. Russian J. Plant Physiol, Vol. 41, 557-559.
  12. Madamwar, D., A. Patel and K. Patel. 1991. Effects of various surfactants on anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth-cattle dung. Bioresources Technol., 37:157-160.
  13. Helle, S. S., S. J. B. Duff and D. G. Cooper. 1993. Effect of surfactants on cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol. Bioengi. 42:11-617.
  14. Yan, S., C. L. Odt and P. J. Weimer. 1997. Competition for cellulose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:734-742.
  15. Goto, M. and Y. Yokoe. 1996. Ammoniation of barley straw: Effect of cellulose crystallinity and water-holding capacity. Anim. Feed Sci.Technol. 58:239-247.
  16. Goto, M., Hee-Dong Bae, M. S. Yahaya, S. Karita, W. Kim, J. Baah, K. Sugawara and K. J. Cheng. 2002. Effects of surfactant Tween 80 on enzymatic accessibility and degradation of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) at different growth stages. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 16, 1: 83-87.
  17. Vadiveloo, J. 1996. The use of multivariate statistics to evaluate the response of rice straw varieties to chemical treatment. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 9: 83-89.
  18. Hai, J., K. Hamana, M. Hishinuma and J. Sekine. 1999. Changes in histological structure of steam-exploded wheat straw observed by scanning electron microscopy in course of in situ ruminal incubation. Anim. Sci. Technol.(Jpn). 70:161-168.
  19. Yamada, Y., E. Nakayama, M. Goto, Y. Yurugi, K. Takabe, S. Karita, and M. Fujita. 2000b. Variations in the mode of cell wall degradation of bagasse by basidiomycetes possessing different enzyme profiles. Grassl.Sci. 46:265-273.
  20. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1990. Official methods of analysis, 14th ed. AOAC. Washington, DC.
  21. Goto, M., A. H. Gordon and A. Chesson. 1991. Effect of gaseous ammonia on barley straws showing different degradabilities. J. Sci. Food Agric. 56:141-153.
  22. Yamada, Y., M. Goto, S. Karita, K. Takabe, M. Fujita, Y. Suzuki and Y. Yurugi. 2000a. Effect of basidiomycetes (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus, Pleurotis cystidiosus, Auricularia polytricha) on chemical structure and rumen degradability of bagasse. Grassl. Sci. 46:158-166.
  23. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Method for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, neutral detergent lignin and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  24. Bradford, M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72: 248-254.
  25. Castanon, M. and C. R. Wilke. 1981. Effects of the surfactant Tween 80 on enzymatic hydrolysis of newspaper. Biotechnol. Bioengi. Technol., 23:1365 - 1372.
  26. Hai, J., K. M. Hamana, R. Hishinuma, R. Oura, and J. Sekine. 1998. Effect of steam-explosion of wheat straw on its chemical composition and ruminal degradation characteristics. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn). 69:293-298.

Cited by

  1. Pretreatment of surfactant Tween 80 and fibrolytic enzyme influencing volatile fatty acid and methane production of a total mixed ration by mixed rumen microorganisms at in vitro vol.51, pp.2, 2005,
  2. 7 vol.76, pp.1, 2012,
  3. Effects of dietary supplementation with alkyl polyglycoside, a nonionic surfactant, on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation in goats1 vol.88, pp.12, 2010,
  4. Effect of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate supplementation on lactation performance, blood-biochemical profile, and economic efficacy of mid-lactation Holstein cows vol.31, pp.9, 2018,
  5. Effect of optimal sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate supplementation on growth performance and blood and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers during the early fattening period vol.31, pp.9, 2018,