Effects of Non-ionic Surfactants on Enzyme Distributions of Rumen Contents, Anaerobic Growth of Rumen Microbes, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Performances of Lactating Cows

  • Lee, S.S. (Division of Animal Science and Technology, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Ahn, B.H. (Division of Animal Science and Technology, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, H.S. (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA) ;
  • Kim, C.H. (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA) ;
  • Cheng, K.-J. (BioAgricultural Resoures, Academia Sinica) ;
  • Ha, J.K. (Division of Animal Science and Technology, Gyeongsang National University)
  • Published : 2003.01.01


A series of experiments was carried out to determine the possibility for the non-ionic surfactant (NIS) as a feed additive for ruminant animals. The effect of the NIS on (1) the enzyme distribution in the rumen fluids of Hereford bulls, (2) the growth of pure culture of rumen bacteria and (3) rumen anaerobic fungi, (4) the ruminal fermentation characteristics of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo), and (5) the performances of Holstein dairy cows were investigated. When NIS was added to rumen fluid at the level of 0.05 and 0.1% (v/v), the total and specific activities of cell-free enzymes were significantly (p<0.01) increased, but those of cell-bound enzymes were slightly decreased, but not statistically significant. The growth rates of ruminal noncellulolytic species (Ruminobacter amylophilus, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola and Selenomonas ruminantium) were significantly (p<0.01) increased by the addition of NIS at both concentrations tested. However, the growth rate of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens) were slightly increased or not affected by the NIS. In general, NIS appears to effect Gram-negative bacteria more than Gram-positive bacteria; and non-cellulolytic bacteria more than cellulolytic bacteria. The growth rates of ruminal monocentric fungi (Neocallimastix patriciarum and Piromyces communis) and polycentric fungi (Orpinomyces joyonii and Anaeromyces mucronatus) were also significantly (p<0.01) increased by the addition of NIS at all concentrations tested. When NIS was administrated to the rumen of Hanwoo, Total VFA and ammonia-N concentrations, the microbial cell growth rate, CMCase and xylanase activities in the rumen increased with statistical difference (p<0.01), but NIS administration did not affect at the time of 0 and 9 h post-feeding. Addition of NIS to TMR resulted in increased TMR intake and increased milk production by Holstein cows and decreased body condition scores. The NEFA and corticoid concentrations in the blood were lowered by the addition of NIS. These results indicated that the addition of NIS may greatly stimulate the release of some kinds of enzymes from microbial cells, and stimulate the growth rates of a range of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms, and also stimulate the rumen fermentation characteristics and animal performances. Our data indicates potential uses of the NIS as a feed additive for ruminant animals.


Non-ionic Surfactants;Enzyme Activity;Microbial Growth;Rumen Microorganism;Ruminal Fermentation;Lactation;Performances;Hanwoo;Holstein


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