Comparative Performance of Broilers Fed Diets Containing Processed Meals of BT, Parental Non-BT Line or Commercial Cotton Seeds

  • Elangovan, A.V. (Central Avian Research Institute) ;
  • Mandal, A.B. (Central Avian Research Institute) ;
  • Johri, T.S. (Central Avian Research Institute)
  • Received : 2002.07.23
  • Accepted : 2002.10.02
  • Published : 2003.01.01


An effort was made to assess comparative production performance in broiler chickens fed diets containing solvent extracted cottonseed meal (CSM) processed from BT and Parental Non-BT lines. Processed meal of national check and commercial produce cottonseeds were also used for comparison. The free gossypol contents were 0.02, 0.02, 0.44 and 0.03% in meals of BT, Parental Non-BT, national check and commercial produce cottonseeds, respectively. Day-old broiler chicks (n=243) were divided to 27 groups of 9 each. Nine dietary treatments (iso-nitrogenous, 23% CP and iso-caloric, 2,800 kcal ME/kg) were formulated viz., D1 (control, soybean meal-SBM based), D2 and D3 (BT CSM at 10% of diet with and without additional iron), D4 and D5 (non-BT CSM with and without additional iron), D6 and D7 (national check CSM with or without additional iron), and D8 and D9 (commercial produce CSM with or without additional iron at 2 ppm for every 1 ppm of free gossypol, respectively). Each dietary treatment was offered to three replicated groups up to 6 weeks of age. At the end of 6 weeks of age, 10 birds were taken out randomly from each treatment and were sacrificed to study carcass traits, organs' yield and histo-pathological changes in vital organs. The broiler chickens received CSM processed from BT (D2, 1,753 g and D3, 1,638 g) and Parental Non-BT (D4, 1,653 g and D5, 1,687 g) with or without additional Fe grew at same rate as observed in soybean meal (solvent ext.) based diet (D1, 1,676 g). The feed intake and feed conversion efficiency (feed: gain) in these dietary treatments (BT, non-BT line based diets) also did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from control diet. Similar observation was also observed in dietary treatments (D8 and D9) containing solvent extracted cottonseed meal of commercial produce origin. However, a decrease (p<0.05) in body weight gain and feed intake was observed in D6 containing national check CSM with high gossypol content. Addition of Fe in the diet (D7) improved (p<0.05) feed intake and weight gain but not to the extent as observed in diets containing BT, parental non-BT, and commercial produce CSM or control. However, any type of CSM did not affect feed conversion efficiency when fed with or without additional iron. The carcass characteristics in terms of dressing percentage, liver weight and heart weight was not significantly (p>0.05) different between the treatments. The eviscerated yields emanated from diets containing either BT, non-BT or commercial produce were statistically similar to control. However, eviscerated yield of broilers fed national check CSM with or without iron supplementation was lower (p<0.05) than BT cotton with Fe supplementation and commercial produce CSM. The study envisaged that BT, parental non-BT and commercial produce solvent extracted cottonseed meal can be included at 10% in soybean meal based broiler diet replacing soybean meal and rice bran without additional iron.


Cottonseed Meals;BT Cotton;Broilers;Growth Performance;Carcass Traits;Pathology


Supported by : Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Ltd.


  1. Atuahene, C. C., A. Donkoh, Nkansah and P. Darko. 1986. Effect of raw cotton seed meal on the performance, carcass characteristics and certain blood parameters of broiler chickens. J. Anim. Prod. Res. 6:107-114.
  2. Eagle, E. and D. L. Devies. 1957. 'Feed value and protein-quality determinations on cottonseed meals. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 34:454-459.
  3. Heywang, B. W., H. R. Bird and R. P. Kupperman. 1952. The loss or inactivation of pure gossypol in a mixed diet. Poult. Sci. 31:35-39.
  4. Waldoup, P. W. 1981. cottonseed meal in poultry diets. Feedsuffs 53:21-24.
  5. Phelps, R. A., F. S. Shenstone, A. R. Kemmerer and R. J. Evans. 1965. A review of cyclopropenoid compounds: Biological ffects of some derivatives. Poult. Sci. 44:358-395.
  6. Lillie, R. J. and H. R. Bird. 1950. Effect of oral administration of pure gossypol and of pigment glands of cottonseed on mortality and growth of chicks. Poult. Sci. 39:390-393.
  7. Lipstein, B. and S. Bornstein. 1964. Studies with acidulated cottonseed oil soapstock. Attempts to reduce its gossypol content. Poult. Sci. 43:694-701.
  8. Richardson, L. R. and L. G. Blaylock, 1950. Vitamin $B_{12}$ and amino acids as supplements to soybean oil meal and cottonseed meal for growing chicks. J. Nutr. 40:169-176.
  9. Clawson, A. J. and F. H. Smith. 1966. Effect of dietary iron on gossypol toxicity and on residues of gossypol in porcine liver. J. Nutr. 89:307-310.
  10. Milligan, J. L. and H. R. Bird. 1951. Effect of processing variants on the nutritive value of cottonseed meals for chicks. Poult. Sci. 30:651-657.
  11. Rigdon, R. H., G. Cross, T. M. Ferguson and J. R. Couch. 1958. Effect of gossypol in young chickens with the production of a ceroid-like pigment. Arch Pathol. 65:228-235.
  12. Watkins, S. E., J. T. Skinner, M. H. Adams and P. W. Waldroup. 1993. An Evaluation of low Gossypol cottonseed meal in diets for broiler chickens 1. Effect of cottonseed meal level and lysine $supplementation^1$. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 2:221-226.
  13. Badrinarayanan, P. 2002. BT cotton technology-Boon or bane: Agric. Today 38-40.
  14. Couch, J. R., W. Y. Chang and C. M. Lyman. 1955. The effect of free gossypol on chick growth. Poult. Sci. 34:178-183.
  15. AOCS. 1989. Sampling and analysis of oilseed by-products, total and free gossypol. AOCS Official Method, Ba 7-58 & Ba 8-78.
  16. Ryan, J. R., F. H. Kratzer, C. R. Grau and P. Vohra. 1986. Glandless cottonseed meal for laying and breeding hens and broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 65:949-955.
  17. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  18. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1989. Statistical Methods 8th Ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
  19. Flemming, J. S. 1996. Part substitution of soyabean oilmeal protein with cottonseed meal protein in the feeding of broiler chickens. Revista do sector de Ciencias Agrarias., 15:61-65.
  20. Song Chen, Junqi Huang, Boaliang Zhou, Wanchao Ni, Zhenling Zhang, Xinlian Shen, Limei Gu, Sheng Li, Chen S, Huang JQ, BL Z hou, WC Ni, ZL Zhang, XL Shen, YJ Xu, LM Gu, S Li. 1996. A safety assessment of feeding rats and quails with cotton seed meal from BT transgenic cotton plants. Jiangsu J. Agric. Sci. 12:17-22.
  21. Watkins, S. E. and P. W. Waldroup. 1995. Utilization of high protein cottonseed meal in broiler diets. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 4:310-318.
  22. EL Boushy, A. R. and R. Raterink. 1989. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal and peanut meal or both in low energy diets for broilers. Poult. Sci. 68:799-804.
  23. Golian, A. 1994. The utilization of Mashhad cottonseed meal in the corn-soya or wheat-soya diet of broiler chicks. Agric. Sci. Technol. 8:67-78.
  24. Phelps, R. A. 1966. Cottonseed meal for poultry from research to practical application. World Poultry Sci. 22:86-111.

Cited by

  1. ), parental line or commercial cotton vol.45, pp.5, 2004,
  2. Cottonseed Meal in Poultry Diets: A Review vol.44, pp.2, 2007,