Effect of Roasting Condition on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Flour and the Quality Characteristics of Tarakjuk

볶음조건에 따른 멥쌀가루의 이화학적 특성 및 타락죽의 품질특성

  • Lee, Gui-Chu (Department of Home Economics Education, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, So-Jung (Department of Home Economics Education, Korea University) ;
  • Koh, Bong-Kyung (Department of Food and Nutrition, Keimyung University)
  • 이귀주 (고려대학교 가정교육과) ;
  • 김소정 (고려대학교 가정교육과) ;
  • 고봉경 (계명대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2003.10.01

Abstract

The physicochemical properties of rice flour roasted at various temperatures and times were analyzed, and the quality characteristics of tarakjuk made from these roasted rice flours were investigated. As roasting temperature and time increased, rice flour showed decreasing moisture, protein content, and glucose the major reducing sugar of rice flour. Total amino acid content did not show any significant changes, but the amount of free amino acids and individual amino acids, such as lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine, decreased. A decrease in L value and increases in a and b values from both roasted rice flour and tarakjuk was observed. Reduced crystallinity and gelatinization temperatures of roasted rice flour were investigated with X-ray diffractogram and DSC, respectively. The thermal transitions between $100.6{\sim}127.6^{\circ}C$ of tarakjuk by DSC are considered to be due to the melting of amylose-lipid complex. As the roasting temperature and time of rice flours increased, tarakjuk showed lower viscosity and higher spreadability. Sensory characteristics, such as nutty flavor, color intensity, and gritty texture increased significantly. Tarakjuk made from rice flour roasted at $185^{\circ}C$ for 25min showed the highest score on overall preference. From the above results, roasted rice flour produced more preferable tarakjuk than nonroasted flour in terms of sensory quality.

References

  1. Hwang, H.S., Han, B.R. and Han, B.J. Korean Traditional Foods, p. 234. Kyomoonsa, Seoul, Korea (1991)
  2. Yun, S.S. Korean Food, p. 119. Soohacksa, Seoul, Korea (1997)
  3. Kang, I.H. Korean Taste, p. 64. Daehankyogwasuh, Seoul, Korea (1987)
  4. Lee, G.C. A study on the traditional daily food of Seoul. Asian Comparative Folklore 20: 233-250 (2001)
  5. Yoon, S.K. and Kim, W.J. Effects of roasting conditions on quality and yields of barley tea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 21: 575-582 (1989)
  6. Ha, T.Y., Chun, H.S., Lee, C., Kim, Y.H. and Han, O. Changes in physicochemical properties of steamed rice for Soong-Neung during roasting. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 31: 171-175 (1999)
  7. Lee, Y.T., Seog, H.M., Kim, S.S., Kim, K.T. and Hong, H.D. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of immature barley kernels during roasting. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 26: 336-342 (1984)
  8. Ayatse, J.O., Eka, O.U. and Ifon, E.T. Chemical evaluation of theeffect of roasting on the nutritive value of maize (Zea mays, Linn). Food Chem. 12: 135-147 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(83)90024-9
  9. Kunsch, U., Scharer, H., Patrian, B., Hoh, E., Conedera, M., Sassella, A., Jermini, M. and Jelmini, G. Effects of roasting or chemical composition and quality of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 81: 1106-1112 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.916
  10. Webb, B.D. and Stermer, R.A. Criteria of rice quality, P. 102. In: Rice Chemistry and Technology. Houston, D.F. (eds.). AACC, MN, USA (1972)
  11. Kim, K.J. Changes of physicochemical characteristics of various rice cooking by using milk and in vitro digestibility. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 3: 28-37 (1987)
  12. Kim, K.J., Kang, S.H. and Kwag, Y.J. Rheological evaluation of cooked rice with milk. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 7: 71-86 (1991)
  13. Cho, E.J. and Shin, H.S. Analytical study of Jook (Korean gruel) appeared in the books. Korean J. Diet. Culture 11: 609-619 (1996)
  14. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Homepage.
  15. Lee, C.J. A study on the improvement of menu patterns of gruels as soft diet in hospital foodservice operation. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 10: 18-23 (1994)
  16. SAS Institute, Inc. SAS User's Guide. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, NC, USA (1990)
  17. Giami, S.Y., Adindu, M.N., Akusu, M.O. and Emelike, J.N.T. Compositional, functional and storage properties of flours from raw and heat processed African breadfruit seeds. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 55: 357-368 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008136608265
  18. Kashani, G.G. and Guy Valadon, L.R. Effect of salting and roasting on the carbohydrates and proteins of Iranian pistachio kernels. J. Food Technol. 19: 247-253 (1984) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb00347.x
  19. van Boekel, M.A.J.S. Effect of heating on Maillard reaction in milk. Food Chem. 62: 403-414 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00075-2
  20. Seog, H.M. The effects of the roasting temperatures on the formation of volatile compounds in the malted naked barley. Ph.D. dissertation, Choongang Univ., Seoul, Korea (1987)
  21. Ha, T.Y., Chun, H.S., Lee, C., Kim, Y.H. and Han, O. Changes in physicochemical properties of steamed rice for Soong-Neung during roasting. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 31: 171-175 (1999)
  22. Agunbiade, S.O. and Longe, O.G. Essential amino acid composition and biological quality of yambean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex A. Rich) Hams. Nahrung 43: 22-24 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(19990101)43:1<22::AID-FOOD22>3.0.CO;2-U
  23. Ozdemir, F., Ackurt, F., Myildiz, G., Biringen, T., Gurcan, M. and Loker, M. Effect of roasting on some nutrients of hazelnuts (Corylus Avellena L.). Food Chem. 73: 185-190 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00260-0
  24. Buleon, A., Colonna, P., Planchot, V. and Ball, S. Mini review. Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23: 85-112 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-8130(98)00040-3
  25. Jsyskofy, L. and Hoover, R. The effect of linterization on cereal starch granules. Food Res. Int. 35: 665-680 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00204-6
  26. Sodhi, N.S. and Singh, N. Morphological, thermal and rheological properties of starches separated from rice cultivars grown in India. Food Chem. 80: 99-108 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00246-7
  27. Guler, S., Koksel, H. and Ng. P.K.W. Effects of industrial pasta drying temperatures on starch properties and pasta quality. Food Res. Int. 35: 421-427 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00136-3
  28. Holm, J., Bjorck, I., Sjoberg, N.-G., Asp, L.B. and Lundquist, I. Starch availability in vitro and in vivo after flaking, steam-cooking and popping of wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 3: 193-206 (1985) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(85)80013-8
  29. Cooke, D. and Michael, J. Loss of crystalline and molecular order during starch gelatinization : origin of enthalpic transition. Carbohydr. Res. 227: 103-112 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6215(92)85063-6
  30. Ahmed, M. and Belfast, J.L. Effect of various drying procedures on the crystallinity of starch isolated from wheat grains. Starch 30: 78-79 (1978) https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19780300303
  31. Kaur, K. and Singh, N. Amylose-lipid complex formation during cooking of rice flour. Food Chem. 71: 511-517 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00202-8
  32. Kim, K.J., Kang, S.H. and Kwag, Y.J. Rheological evaluation of cooked rice with milk. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 7: 71-86 (1991)
  33. Plahar, W.A., Annan, N.T. and Nti, C.A. Cultivar and processing effects on the pasting characteristics, tannin content and protein quality and digestibility of cowpea. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 51: 343-356 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007994612607
  34. Mangala, L.M., Malleshi Mehadevamma, N.G. and Tharanatnan, R.N. Resistant starch from differently processed rice and ragi (finger millet). Eur. Food Res. Technol. 209: 32-37 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170050452
  35. Lintauw, C. and D'Appolonia, B.L. Effect of spagetti processing on semolina carbohydrates. Cereal Chem. 50: 563-570 (1973)
  36. Yue, R., Rayas-Duarte, P. and Elias, E. Effect of drying temperature on physicochemical properties of starch isolated from pasta. Cereal Chem. 76: 541-547 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.541
  37. Szczodrak, J. and Pomeranz, Y. Starch-lipid interaction and formation of resistant starch in high-amylose barley. Cereal Chem. 69: 626-632 (1992)
  38. Siljestrom, M., Westerlund, E., Bjorck, I., Holm, J. and Asp. N.G. The effects of various thermal processes on dietary fibre andstarch content of whole grain wheat and white flour. J. Cereal Sci. 4: 315-323 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(86)80035-2