Immunomodulatory activity of Salicornia herbacea L. Components

  • Im, Sun-A (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Goo-Whan (College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkang University) ;
  • Lee, Chong-Kil (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
  • Published : 2003.12.01


Salicornia herbacea is an annual herb growing in salt marshes and on muddy seashores. Salicornia herbacea has been used as a fork medicine as well as a seasoned vegetable. In fork medicine, Salicornia herbacea has been used to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, obesity, diabetes, asthma, arthritis and cancer. However, the biological mechanisms for these activities have not been characterized, nor the active components. The immunomodulatory activity of Salicornia herbacea components were studied in the present study. The components of Salicornia herbacea were prepared from the whole plant by passage through a fine screen, and then dialyzed against PBS overnight. Immunomodulatory activities of the Salicornia herbacea components were examined on a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. The Salicornia herbacea components were shown to stimulate cytokine production, nitric oxide release, and expression of surface molecules in a dose dependent manner. The Salicornia herbacea components also induced further differentiation of slightly adherent RAW 264.7 cell into strongly adherent macrophages. These results indicate that Salicornia herbacea contains immunomodulator(s) that induces activation of macrophages.



  1. Adams, D.O., Hamilton, T. A., The cell biology of macrophage activation. Annu. Rev. Immunol., 2, 283-318 (1984)
  2. Chen, W., E. A. Havell, L. L. Moldawer, K. W. Mcintyre, R. A. Chizzonite and A. G. Harmsen, Interleukin-1: an important mediator of host resistance against Pneumocystis carinii. J. Exp. Med., 176: 713-718 (1992)
  3. Hoffman, O. A., Standing, J. E., Limper, A. H., Pneumocystis carinii stimulates tumor necrosis factor-a release from alveolar macrophage through a$\beta$ -glucan-mediated mechanism. J. Immunol., 150, 3932-3940 (1993)
  4. Kolls. J., Xie, R LeBlanc, T. Malinski. S. Nelson, W. Summer and S. S. Greenberg, Rapid induction of messenger RNA for nitric oxide synthase in rat neutrophils in vivo by endotoxin and its suppression by prednisolone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 205, 220-229 (1994)
  5. Lalitha, R, Maurice C. K., Ian R. T., Acemannan, a, $\alpha,\beta$ -(1,4)acetylated mannan, induces nitric oxide production in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The American Society for Phamacology and Experimental Therapeutics., 50, 878-884 (1996)
  6. Lee, J. K., Lee, M. K., Yun, Y. P., Kim, Y. S., Kim, J. S., Kim, Y. S., Kim, K. J.,Han, S. S., Lee, C. K., Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells. Int. Immunopharmacol., 1, 1275-1284 (2001)
  7. Lee, Y. N., Flora of Korea, Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Seoul, p. 144, 1997
  8. Limper, A. H., Tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ mediated hosted host defense against Pneumocystis carinii. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 16, 110-111 (1997)
  9. Lowenstein, C. J., E. W. Alley, P. Raval, A. M. Snowman, S. H. Snyder, S. W. Russell and W.J Murphy, Macrophage nitric oxide synthase gene : two upstream region mediate induction by interferon-$\gamma$ and lipopolysaccharide. Biochemistry, 90, 9730-9734 (1993)
  10. Millian, N. S. and Garrow, T. A., Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase is a zinc metalloenzyme. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 356, 93-98 (1998)
  11. Min, J. G.., Lee, D. S., Kim, T. J, Park, J. H., Cho, T. Y., and Park, D. I, Chemical composition of Salicornia Herbacea L. Journal of Food science and Nutrition, 7, 105-107 (2002)
  12. Shalaby, M. R, T. Espevik, G. C. Rice, A. J. Amman, I. S. Figari, G. E. Ranges and M. A. Palladino, Jr., The involvement of human tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ and -$\beta$ in the mixed lymphocytes reaction, J. Immunol., 141, 499-503 (1988)
  13. Shamash, S., Reichert, F, and Rotshenker, S., The Cytokine Network of Wallerian Degeneration: Tumor necrosis factor-a, Inrerleukin-$1\alpha$, and Interleukin-$1\beta$, The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 3052-3060 (2002)
  14. Shin, K. S., Boo, H. O., Jeon, M. W., Ko, J. Y., Chemical components of native plant, Salicornia Herbacea L. Korean Journal of Plant Research, 15, 216-220 (2002)
  15. Xie. Q. W., R. Whisnant and C. Nathan, Promoter of the mouse gene encoding calcium-independent nitric oxide synthase confers inducibility by interferon-a and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J. Exp. Med., 177, 1779-1784. (1993)
  16. Yokota, S., T. D. Geppert and P. E. Lipsky, Enhancement of antigen and mitogen-induced hwnan T lymphocyte proliferation by tumor necrosis factor-.$\alpha$ J. Immunol., 140, 531-536 (1988)
  17. Zeisel, S. H. and Blusztajn, J. K., Choline and human nutrition. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 14, 269-296 (1994)