• FANG C. (Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University) ;
  • XU Z. (Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University) ;
  • DING M. D. (Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University)
  • Published : 2003.06.01


There are at least three effects of the non-thermal particle bombardment on the solar atmosphere: (1) non-thermal ionization and excitation; (2) proton-hydrogen charge exchange; (3) impact line polarization. Due to the non-thermal ionization and excitation effects of electron bombardments in flares, H$\alpha$ line is widely broadened and shows a strong central reversal. Significant enhancements at the line wings of Ly$\alpha$ and Ly$\beta$ are also predicted. In the case of proton bombardment, less strong broadening and no large central reversal are expected. However, due to proton-hydrogen charge exchange, the enhancements at the red wings of Ly$\alpha$ and especially of Ly$\beta$ lines at the early impulsive phase of flares are significant. Electron beam can also in some cases generates visible and UV continuum emission in white-light flares. However, at the onset phase, a negative 'black' flare may appear in several seconds, due to the increase of the $H^-$ opacity. The impact polarization of atomic lines can provide complementary information on the energetic particles, the energy transport and deposit in the solar chromosphere. New results of spectropolarimetric analysis for the major flare on July 23, 2002 are also given in the paper.


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