- Volume 28 Issue 2
The primary contributors to the total occupational radiation exposure in operating nuclear power plants are operation and maintenance activities doting refueling outages. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) includes a number of design improvements and plans to utilize advanced maintenance methods and robotics to minimize the annual collective dose. The major radiation exposure reduction features implemented in APR1400 are a permanent refueling pool seal, quick opening transfer tube blind flange, improved hydrogen peroxide injection at shutdown, improved permanent steam generator work platforms, and more effective temporary shielding. The estimated average annual occupational radiation exposure for APR1400 based on the reference plant experience and an engineering judgment is determined to be in the order of 0.4 man-Sv, which is well within the design goal of 1 man-Sv. The basis of this average annual occupational radiation exposure estimation is an eighteen (18) month fuel cycle with maintenance performed to steam generators and reactor coolant pumps during refueling outage. The outage duration is assumed to be 28 days. The outage work is to be performed on a 24 hour per day basis, seven (7) days a week with overlapping twelve (12) hour work shifts. The occupational radiation exposure for APR1400 is also determined by an alternate method which consists of estimating radiation exposures expected for the major activities during the refueling outage. The major outage activities that cause the majority of the total radiation exposure during refueling outage such as fuel handling, reactor coolant pump maintenance, steam generator inspection and maintenance, reactor vessel head area maintenance, decontamination, and ICI & instrumentation maintenance activities are evaluated at a task level. The calculated value using this method is in close agreement with the value of 0.4 man-Sv, that has been determined based on the experience aid engineering judgement. Therefore, with the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) advanced design features incorporated in the design, APR1400 design is to meet its design goal with sufficient margin, that is, more than a factor of two (2), if operated on art eighteen (18) month fuel cycle.
- KEPCO, Korean Utility Requirements Document(1998)
- M.L. Thomas and D. Hagemeyer, 'Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities', NUREG-0713, Vol. 18 (1999)
- T.D. Crom, C.L. Naugle and R.S. Turk, . 'System 80+ Standard Design Incorporates Radiation Protection Lessons Learned', NUREG/CP-0143. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the Implementation of ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants(1995)
- D.M. Matteson, 'Refueling and Maintenance Outages for System 80+', ALWR-ME-RR-002. ABB-Combustion Engineering Inc. (1995)
- D.M. Matteson, 'Operation and Maintenance Benefits of System 80+', ALWR-ME-RR-003, ABB-Combustion Engineering Inc. (1995)