- Volume 13 Issue 1
Knowledge regarding the resilience factors and risk factors of the childhood trauma on the developental trajectory is in its infancy due to the lack of prospective follow-up studies in the childhood trauma and limited understanding of the complex reciprocal interactions between childhood trauma, develop-ent and various aspects of children's environment. These difficulties in the conceptual framework and research methods in the childhood trauma are partly reflected in the inconsistencies, even controversies, of the results in the childhood trauma researches. Despite these difficulties, common aspects of the risk factors and resilience of the childhood trauma on the development can be identified from the previous studies. The resilience to the negative outcome on the development by childhood trauma includes：sex female before puberty, male after puberty or infancy), high socioeconomic status, no organic problem, easy temperament, no previous experience with early loss or separation, younger age at the trauma, better problem solving capacity, high self-esteem, internal locus of control, high coping skills, ability to identify interpersonal relationships, ability to play, sense of humor, having capable parents, having a warm relaionship with at least one of the parents, high education and participating in the organized religious activities. These commonalities of the results suggest that risk and resilient factors of the childhood trauma are interdependent, each factor has multiplicity in the impacts on the children's development according to the developmental stage of the child, family and children's other environment, trauma and stressor have diverse effects according to their intensity and risk and resilience factors could have synergistic or antagonistic effects to each other. To develop comprehensive understanding on the relationship between childhood trauma and developmental psychopathology, risk and resilience factors and to develop effective and efficient prevention and intervention, research on the effect of the stress on the neurodevelopment, on the individual differences of the response to the trauma including genetic factors and constitution, and on the brain plasticity should be accompanied in the future.