Multiple Symbiotic Associations Found in the Roots of Botrychium ternatum

  • Lee, Jun-Ki (Graduate School, Biological Science and Education, Korea National University of Education) ;
  • Eom, Ahn-Heum (Institute of Natural Science, Korea National University of Education) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Sun (Graduate School, Biological Science and Education, Korea National University of Education)
  • Published : 2002.09.30


Two types of mycorrhizae, orchid(OM) and arbuscular mycorrhizae(AM), were observed in the cortical cells of Botrychium ternatum roots. The vesicles or arbuscules of AM fungi were examined and the fresh or digestive pelotons by other species of basidiomycetes were also observed in the roots under light microscope. These symbioses were, as the genomic DNAs extracted from roots of B. ternatum reacted with the specific primers, confirmed with PCR technique, being added to more strong evidences. These discoveries were rarely happened in the roots, especially a fern in nature. OM was observed in the roots of B. ternatum collected from the nationwide areas, whereas AM was only in the roots of B. ternatum collected from Chung-Buk areas. It is speculated that OM are associated with the nitrogen cycle in Islands and the growth of B. ternatum in the inland of Central Korea is related to both the phosphate and nitrogen cycle in the nature. The results suggest that B. ternatum is a typical species with two types of mycorrhizae under various growing conditions.


  1. Allen, M. F. 1991. The ecology of mycorrhizae. Cambridge studies in ecology, Cambridge Univ. Press
  2. Allen, M. F., Smith, W. K., Moore, T. S. and Christenson, M. 1981. Comparative water relations photosynthesis of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Bouteloua gracilis. New Phytol. 88: 683-693
  3. Bold, H. C., Alexopoulos, C. J. and Delevoryas, T. 1987. Morphology of Plants and Fungi. 5th eds. Harper and HarperCollins Publisher. N.Y. see Pp 320-325
  4. Boullard, B. 1957. La mycotrophie chezes Pteridophytes. Sa frequence, ses caracteres, sa signification. Le Botaniste 41: 5-15
  5. Brundrett, M., Bogher, N., Dell, B., Grove, T and Malajczuk, M. C. 1996. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. ACIAR. Canberra, Australia
  6. Brunei, D. 1992. An alternative, rapid method of plant DNA extraction for PCR analyses. Nucleic Acid Res. 20: 4676
  7. Burgeff, H. 1938. Mycorrhiza. Pp 159-196 In; Manual of Pteridology ed. F. Verdoorn, M. Nijihoff: The Hague
  8. Daniell, T. J, Husband, R, Fitter, A. H. and Young, J. P. 2001. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing arable crops. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 36: 203-209
  9. Fitter, A. H. and Young, J. W. 1999. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing Hyacinthoides non-scripta (bluebell) in a seminatural woodland. Mol. Ecol. 8: 659-666
  10. Gardes, M. and Bruns, T. D. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes-application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2: 113-118
  11. Gemma, IN., Koske, R. E. and Flynn, T. 1992. Mycorrhizae in Hawaiian pteridophytes: occurrence and evolutionary significance. Am. J. Bot. 79: 843-852
  12. Giovannetti, M. and Mosse, B. 1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist 84: 489-500
  13. Helgason, T., Daniell, T. L., Husband, R, Fitter, A. H. and Young, J. P. 1998. Ploughing up the wood-wide web? Nature 394: 431
  14. Helgason, T., Fitter, A. H. and Young, J. W. 1999. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing Hyacinthoides nonscripta (bluebell) in a seminatural woodland. Mol. Ecol. 8: 659-666
  15. Kelly, A. P. 1950. Mycotropy in plants Lectures on the biology of mycorrhizae and related structures. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Mass, U.S.A.
  16. Kelly, D. 1994. Demography and conservation of Botrychium australe, a peculiar, sparse mycorrhizal fern. New Zealand J. Bot. 32: 393-400
  17. Koske, R E. and Gemma, J. N. 1989. A modified procedure for staining roots to detect VA mycorrhizas. Mycol. Res. 92: 486-488
  18. Kramer, K. U. 1990. Ophioglossaceae. page 193-197 In; WH Wagner, Jr. ed, The families and genera of vascular plants [vol. eds. K. U. Kramer and P. S. Green].
  19. Kuninaga, S., Natsuaki, T., Takeuchi, T. and Yokosawa, R 1997. Sequence variation of the rDNA ITS regions within and between anastomosis groups in Rhizoctonia solani. Curr. Genet. 32: 237-243
  20. Lee, J. K., Eom, A. H., Lee, S. S. and Lee, C. H. 2001. Mycorrhizal symbioses found in roots of fern and its relatives in Korea. J. Plant Biol. 44: 81-86
  21. Lee, S. S., Kim, D. H. and Chung, H. C. 2000a. Ectomycorrhizal roots collected from the bases of the four edible basidiocarps around Mt. Wol Ak. Mycobiology 28: 27-32
  22. Lee, S. S., Lee, J. G., Lee, J. W., Park, S. Y. and Paek, K. Y. 2000b. Effects of the Orchid Symbiotic fungus on the cultivations of Cymbidium Hybrids under the conditions of Greenhouses. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 42: 223-226
  23. Lee, S. S., Ooh, C. H., Seon, J. H. and Paek, K. Y. 1998a. Cultivations of the Orchid Plants on the Soils of Korean Native Orchids. Proceedings of Nagoya International Orchid Conference (NIOC). The Nagoya International Orchid Show
  24. Lee, S. S., Park, S. S., Kim, T. J. and Pack, K. Y. 1997a. Effect of Orchid habitat soil on growth of tissue cultured Cymbidium kanran and C. goeringii and Root infection of Orchid mycorrhizal fungus. Korean Journal of Horticulture Science 38: 176-182
  25. Lee, S. S., Park, S. S. and Pack, K. Y. 1998b. The fungal isolate of Rhizoctonia repens applied to the five different commercial orchid plants. Proceedings of the 15th World Orchid Conference. Rio de Janeiro, Sept. 20-24. 1996. Naturalia Publications, Transfaire SA, F-04250, Turriers, France. see Pp 368-375
  26. Lee, S. S., Riew, H. K. and Paek, K. Y. 1997b. Isolations of Orchid mycorrhizal fungi from the Korean native orchid plants. Korean Mycology 25: 101-110
  27. Lee, S. S. and You, J. H. 2000. Identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Korean native orchid. Mycobiology 28: 17-26
  28. McArthur, D. A. J. and Knowles, N. R. 1993. Influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the response of potato to phosphorous deficiency. Plant Physiol. 101: 147-160
  29. Nakai, T. 1952. A synoptical sketch Flora. Bull. Nat. Mus. 12-22
  30. Parihar, N. S. 1996. The biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Indian Universities Press, Allahabad
  31. Park, M. K. 1975. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fauna and Flora of Korea. vol 16. Pteridophyta. Ministry of Education, Samhwa Publishing, Seoul
  32. PhiIIips, J. M. and Hayman, D. S. 1970. Improved procedures for cleaning roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Tran. Br. Mycol. Soc. 55: 158-161
  33. Schmid, E. and Oberwinkler, F. 1994. Light and electron microscopy of the host-fungus interaction in the achlorophyllous gametophyte of Botrychium lunaria. Can. J. Bot. 72: 182-188
  34. Schmid, E. and Oberwinkler, F. 1996. Light and electron microscopy of a distinctive VA mycorthiza in mature sporophytes of Ophioglossum reticulatum. Mycol. Res. 100: 843-849
  35. Simon, L., Lalonde, M. and Bruns, D. 1992. Specific amplification of 18S fungal genes from vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots. Appl. Environ. Mirobiol. 58: 29 1295
  36. Smith, F. A. and Smith, S. E. 1996. Mutualism and parasitism: Diversity in function and structure in the 'arbuscular' (VA) mycorrhizal symbiosis. Advanced in Botanical Research 22: 143
  37. Stockey, R. A., Rothwell, G. W., Addy, H. D. and Currah, R. S. 2001. Mycorrhizal association of the extinct conifer Metasequoia milleri. Mycol. Res. 105: 202-205
  38. Weising, K., Nyborn, H., Wolff, K. and Meyer, W. 1995. DNA fingerprinting in Plants and fungi. CRC Press. Boca Raton
  39. Zhao, Z. W. 2000. The arbuscular mycorrhizas of pteridophytes in Yunnan, southeast China: evolutionary interpretations. Mycorrhiza 10: 145-149

Cited by

  1. Roots vol.31, pp.1, 2003,
  2. Native in Korea vol.32, pp.4, 2004,