Evaluation on the Degree of Satisfaction with Working Environment for Workers Engaged in the Composting Plant with Livestock Manure in the Han-river Watershed

한강유역 축분퇴비공장 근로자의 작업환경 만족도 평가

  • Kim, K.Y. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Choi, H.L. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, C.N. (Institute for Occupational Health, College of medicine, Yonsei University)
  • 김기연 (서울대학교 농생명공학부) ;
  • 최홍림 (서울대학교 농생명공학부) ;
  • 김치년 (연세대학교 의과대학 산업보건연구소)
  • Published : 2002.04.30


This study was executed to elucidate the degree of satisfaction with working environment and the factors affecting it for workers who are engaged in the composting plants with livestock manure in the Han-river watershed. As an evaluation on site, we applied the self-administered questionaire including general characteristics, working conditions, degree of satisfaction with working environment, and degree of satisfaction with working condition. Simultaneously, we analysed the exposure levels of odor (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and odor intensity) in the boundary area of plants. As a result of the study, health condition, odor, work load, dust, and smoking were proved to be the main factors affecting the degree of satisfaction with working environment for workers who are employed in the composting plants with livestock manure in the Han-river watershed. Of them, it was investigated that health condition, odor, and work load accounted for 61.3% of the total degree of satisfaction with working environment and health condition(p$<$0.01), odor(p$<$0.05), work load(p$<$0.05), and dust(p$<$0.05) were statistically significant. It was concluded that the degree of satisfaction with working environment was high for the workers who had good health status and low for the workers who had the relatively considerable work load and were often exposed to odor and dust. Therefore, to increase the degree of satisfaction with working environment for workers who are engaged in the composting plants with livestock manure, the measures that can reduce the exposure levels of odor and dust emitting from the composting plant with livestock manure should be improved.


Working condition;Odor intensity;Ammonia;Hydrogen sulfide;Dust


  1. ACGIH. 2001. Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices : Cincinnati.
  2. Bottcher, R. W. 2001. An environmental nuisance: odor concentrated and transported by dust. Chemical Senses. 26(3):327-331.
  3. Bunger, J., Antlauf-Lammers. M., Schulz, T. G., Westphal, G. A., Muller, M. M., Ruhnau, P. and hallier, E. 2000. Health complaints and immunological markers of exposure to bioaerosols among biowaste collectors and compost workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 57(7):458-464.
  4. Clark, C. S., Rylander, R. and Larsson, L. 1983. Levels of gram-negative bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, dust. and endotoxin at composting plants. Applied and Enivironmental Microbiology. 45(5):1501-1505.
  5. Drummond, J. G., Curtis. S. E., Grunloh, D. J., Lynch, P. B. and Jensen, A. H. 1975. relative and qualitative aspects of aerial bacteria and dust in swine houses. Journal of Animal Science. 41(5):1512-1520.
  6. Goldstein, N. 1989. New insights into odor control. BioCycle. 30(2):58-61.
  7. Haug, R. T. 1990. An assay on the elements of odor management. BioCycle. 31(10):60-67.
  8. Lacey, J. 1991. Aerobiology and health: the role of airborne fungal spores in respiratory disease. In D. L. Hawksworth(ed). Honorary and general lectures from the Fourth International Mycological Congress. Regensburg. Germany, C. A. B. International. pp. 157-185.
  9. Louhelainen. K., Kangas. J., Veijanen. A. and Viilos, P. 2001. Effect of In Situ Composting on Reducing Offensive Odors and volatile Organic Compounds in Swineries, AIHAJ 62(2):159-167.
  10. Malmros. P. 1990. Problems with the working environment in solid waste treatment. The national Labour Inspection of Denmark. Report No. 10/1990. Copenhagen. Denmark.
  11. Malmros. P., Sigsgaard, T. and Bach, B. 1992. Occupational health problems due to garbage strting. Waste Management & Research. 10: 227-234.
  12. Milby, T. H. 1962. Hydrogen Sulfide Intoxication - Review of the Literature and Report of Unusual Accident Resulting in Two Cases of Nonfatal Poisoning. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 4: 431-437.
  13. Millner, P. D., Marsh, P. B., Snowden. R. B., and Parr, J. F. 1977. Occurrence of Aspergillus fumigatus during composting of sewage sludge. Applied and Enivironmental Microbiology, 34(6): 765-772.
  14. Millner, P. D., Olenchock, S. A., Epstein, E., Rylander, R., Haines. J., Walker, J., Ooi, B. L., Horne, E. and Maritato. M. 1994. Bioaerosols associated with composting facilities. Compost Science & Utilization. 2(4):6-57.
  15. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH). 1974. Criteria for a Recommended Standard-Occupational Exposure to Ammonia. DHEW(NIOSH) Pub. No. 74-136; NTIS No. PB-246-699/A06. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.
  16. Nesswetha, W. 1969. Eye Lesions Caused by Sulfur Compounds. Arbeitsmed. Sozialmed. Arbeitshyg(Germany). 4:288-290.
  17. NIOSH. 1998. Manual of analytical methods. 2nd Ed. Vol 2.
  18. NIOSH. 2000. Manual of analytical methods. 4nd Ed. Vol 3.
  19. Robinson, J. C. 1987. Worker responses to workplace hazards. Journal of Health Polit Policy Law. 12(4):664-670.
  20. Sigsgaard, T., Malmros, P., Nersting, L. and Petersen, C. 1992. Respiratory Disease and Atopy in Danish Resource Recovery Workers. Unpublished Report. Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine. U. of Aarhus. Denmark.
  21. Walker, J. N. 1991. Fundamentals of odor control. BioCycle. 32(9):50-55.
  22. Ware, J. E., Snow, K. K., Kosinski, M. and Gandek, B. 1993. SF-36 health survey: Manual and interpretation guide. The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston. Massachusetts.
  23. Wilber, C. and Murray, C. 1990. Odor source evaluation. BioCycle. 31(3):68-72.
  24. WPCF. 1985. Odor Control for Wastewater Facilities: Manual of Practice No. 22. Washington, D. C. Water Pullution Control Federation.
  25. 국립환경연구원. 1999. 공해요인별 전국 민원건수 현황
  26. 김기연. 최홍림. 2001. 한강유역내 축분퇴비공장 악취발생에 대한 현장평가. 동물자원과학회지. 43(6):1006-1018.
  27. 노동부. 1994. 산업보건기준에 관한 규칙(별표6).
  28. 문영한, 박종연, 이경종, 조명화. 1992. 근로자들의 건강상태가 작업 환경 인식에 미치는 영향. 대한산업의학회지. 4(1):81-90.
  29. 노동부. 1998. 화학물질 및 물리적인자의 노출기준(고시 제1998-65호).
  30. 노동부. 1999. 산업안전보건법(법률 제5886호).
  31. 양성봉, 이성화. 1997. 악취의 성분분석. 동화기술. pp.6.
  32. 이명숙. 1997. 소규모 사업장 보건관리 지원사업 수행실태 분석연구. 대한보건협회.
  33. 환경부. 2001. 대기환경보전법.
  34. 한강유역환경관리청. 2001. 축산분노의 자동 퇴비화 방안 연구.