The Role of Brain and Feeding Response on Lysine Devoid Diet

Lysine 결핍에 따른 섭식반응과 뇌의 역할

  • Kim, C.H. (Institute of Animal Resourses, Kangwon National University)
  • 김창혁 (강원대학교 동물자원공동연구소)
  • Published : 2002.04.30


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deficiency of essential amino acid in diet on feed intake and concentrations of free amino acid in plasma and brain(prepyriform cortex, PPC), and thereby to know the brain area engaged in the mechanism of feed intake regulation. In all trials, experimental diets were formulated with pure amino acid mixture to level of 15% nitrogen. Rats were trained to eat a single meal for 6 hours daily(meal feeding, 17:00-21:00). Feed intake and body weight were measured hourly on and after 7th day of feeding. In Exp. 1, feed intake and body weight were measured every hour, and the free amino acid concentrations of plasma and PPC were analysed at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 h on the 11th day of feeding. In Exp. 2, the complete diet was replaced with lysine devoid diet at the 11th day, and feed intake, body weight and free amino acid concentrations in plasma and PPC were samely measured on Exp. 1. In Exp. 1, feed intake on complete diet was self-sufficiented to daily feed intake level(15g/day) from the 7th day. Free amino acid concentrations of plasma and PPC at the 11th day were plateau at 1 hour after feeding. In Exp. 2, feed intake was quickly reduced by the diet replacement(P$<$0.05), and the free lysine concentration of plasma and PPC was also significantly decreased at 2 hour after feeding. However, cumulative feed intake was significantly decreased at 4 hour after feeding. These results may indicate that the concentrations of free lysine in plasma and PPC, under the condition of devoided lysine in diet, were more quickly droped than the reduction of feed intake rate. Hence, it is expected that PPC in brain might be a part of response area for limited amino acid.


Lysine;Plasma;Prepyriform cortex(PPC);Feed intake regulation;Feeding mechanism


  1. Bellinger L. L., Williams, F. E., Rogers, Q. R. and Gietzen, D. W. 1995. Liver denervation attenuates the hypophagia produced by an imbalanced amino acid diet. Physiol. Behav., 59: 925.
  2. Beverly, J. L., Gietzen, D. W. and Rogers, Q. R. 1991. Protein synthesis in the prepyriform cortex: Effects on intake of an amino acid-imbalanced diet by sprague-dawley rats. J. Nutr., 121:754.
  3. Gietzen, D. W., Leung, P. M. B. and Rogers, Q. R. 1989. Dietary amino acid imbalance and Neuchemical changes in the three hypothalamic areas. Physiol. Behav., 46:503.
  4. Gietzen D. W. 1993. Neural metabolisms in the responses to amino acid deficiency. J. Nutr., 123: 610.
  5. Gietzen, D. W. and Uniyal, M. J. 1995. Alpha 2 noraderenoceptors in the anterior pyriform cortex decline with acute amino acid deficiency. Molecular brain research., 35:41.
  6. Hamilton, C. L. 1973. Physiologic control of food intake. Journal of the Am. Dietetic Association. 62:35.
  7. Harper, A. E., Benevenga, N. J. and Wohlhueter, R. M. 1970. Effects of ingestion of disproportionate amounts of amino acids. Physiol. Rev., 50:428.
  8. Jiang, J. C. and Gietzen, D. W. 1994. Anorectic response to amino acid imbalance : A selective serotonin 3 effect ? Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 47:59.
  9. Kim, C. H., Tanaka, H. and Ogura, M. 1996. Metabolism of lysine, threonine, and leucine in growing rats on gluten or zein diets at various dietary protein levels. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem., 60:1580.
  10. Kim, C. H., Sugahara, K. and Tanaka, H. 1998. Utilization of amino acid carbons in growing rats fed on the zein diets supplemented with graded levels of lysine. Anim. Sci. Technol.(Jpn), 69: 1004.
  11. Kumuta U. S. and Harper, A. E. 1962. Amino acid imbalance and balance. Ⅸ. Effect of amino acid imbalance on blood amino acid pattern. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 110:512.
  12. Leung, P. M. B, Rogers, Q. R. and Harper, A. E. 1968. Effect of amino acid imbalance on plasma and tissue free amino acids in the rat.
  13. Leung, P. M. B. and Rogers, Q. R. 1969. Food intake : Regulation by plasma amino acid pattern. Life sciences, 8:1.
  14. Meliza, L. L., Leung, P. M. B. and Rogers, Q. R. 1981. Effect of anterior prepyriform and medial amygdaloid lesions on acquisition of taste avoidance and reseponse to dietary amino acid imbalance. Physiol. Behav., 26:1031.
  15. Muramatsu, K., Tonooka, S., Kawai, S., Ebisu, G. and Yamamoto, Y. 1988. Self-selection of amino acid and protein, and brain seroptonin concentration in rats. Agric. Biol. Chem., 52:2723.
  16. NRC, 'Nutrient requirements of laboratory animal' National Academy of Science-National Research Council, Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 10, 1974, p. 84.
  17. Panksepp J. and Booth, D. A. 1971. Decreased feeding after injections of amino-acids into the hypothalamus. Nature., 23:341.
  18. Peter, J. C., Bellissimo, D. B. and Harper, A. E. 1983. L-Tryptophan injection fails to alter nutrient selection by rats. Physiology and Behaviour, 32: 253.
  19. Rogers, Q. R. and Leung, P. M. B. 1973. The influence of amino acids on the neuroregulation of food intake. Fed. Proc. 32:1709.
  20. Rogers, Q. R. and Leung, P. M. B. 1977. The control of food intak:When and how are amino acids involved? In : Kare, MR., Maller, O., eds. The chemical senses and nutrition. New York: Academic Press. 213.
  21. SAS. 1990. SAS/STAT guide for personal computers@6.08. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, USA.
  22. Shimazu, K. and Saitou, M. 1988. 神經と代謝調節. 朝倉書店. 東京.
  23. Sugahara, K., Shimoyama Y., Kato H. and Kubo T. 1999. Feeding a lysine-free diet decreases food intake without changes in hypothalamic monoamine concentrations in growing chicks. Amin. Sci. J. 70:484.
  24. Tobin, G. and Boorman, K. N. 1979. Carotid or jugular amino acid infusions and food intake in the cockerel. Br. J. Nutr. 41:157.
  25. Torii, K., Mimura, T. and Yugari, Y. 1987. ‘Biochemical Mechanism of Umami taste perception and effect of dietary protein on the taste preference for amino acid and sodium chloride in rats.’(Y. Kumura and M.R. Kare, eds.), P. 513.
  26. Wang, Y., Cummings, S. L. and Gietzen, D. W. 1996. Temporal-spatial pattern of c-fos expression in the rat brain in response to indispensable amino acid deficiency. I. The initial recognition phase. Molecular brain research. 40:27.
  27. 김창혁, 田中秀幸, 이영철. 1998. 소맥단백질에 lysine 첨가수준이 성장중인 흰쥐에서 $^{14}C$-lysine, $^{14}C$-threonine 및 $^{14}C$-leucine의 체내대사에 미치는 영향. 한영사지. 22(1):39.
  28. 김창혁, 이영철. 1998. 사료단백질의 질적 변화에 따른 단기간의 섭식응답. 한영사지. 22(4):217.