Manufacture and Evaluation of Low-Eat Meat Products(A review)

저지방 육제품의 제조 및 평가

  • 진구복 (전남대학교 동물자원학부 및 생물공학연구소)
  • Published : 2002.12.01

Abstract

Reducing the fat content of processed meat products can be performed by (1) using leaner raw meat materials (2) inducing non-meat ingredients that serve to replace a portion or all of the fat, and (3) applying new ingredient combinations, technologies or processing procedures that decrease the fat and cholesterol content of meat products. Low-fat meat products were manufactured with Int replacers which were food ingredients that had the functional and sensory properties of fat without contributing fat calories, resulting in lower fat(<3%) content. Added water, non-meat proteins, carbohydrates, such as starch and hydrocolloids(gums) and vegetable oils have been used as typical fat replacers to be used in meat products. In addition, fat substitutes included structural lipids, sucrose polyester and ingredient combinations. Formulations for the manufacture of low-fat meat products in combined with new technologies have focused on the use of fat replacer combinations that contributes a minimum of calories and not detrimental to flavor, juiciness, mouthfeel or textural traits expected more traditional products. In conclusion, some combinations of fat replacements that mimics the flavor, mouthfeel and textural characteristics of fat offer potential for further development of low-fat meat products to have similar characteristics of regular-fat counterparts.

References

  1. American Heart Association (AHA). (1978) Diet and coronaryheart disease. Circulation, 58, 762A-766A
  2. Becker, A. R.. (1996) Evaluation of konjac gels as fat substitutesin meat 'emulsion' products. M. S. Thcsis. Texas A&M University. College Station, TX, USA
  3. Berry, B. W. and Wergin, W. P. (1990) F.t'tects of fat level,starch gel usuage and freezing rate on \ arious properties of groundbeef patties. J. Animat Sci., 68, (Suppl.l). 24
  4. Bloukas, J. G., Paneras, E. D. and Foumitzis, G. C. (1997)Sodium lactate and protective culture et'tects on quality characte-ristics and shelf-life of low-fat frankfurtcrs produced with olive oil. Meat Sci., 45(2), 223-238 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(96)00108-8
  5. Brown, L. M. and Zayas, J. F. (1990) Com germ protein flour asan extender in broiled beef patties. J. Fowl Sci.. 55, 888-892
  6. Caballo, J., Barreto, G. and Colmenero, F. J. (1995) Starch andegg white influence on properties of bologna sausages as relatedto fat content. J. Food Sci., 60, 673-677 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb06204.x
  7. Campbell, R. E., Hunt, M. C., Kropf, D. H. and Kastner, C. L.(1996) Low-fat ground beef from clesinewed shanks withreincoporation of processed sinew. J. Food Sci., 61, 1285-1288 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1996.tb10980.x
  8. Casella, L. J. (1983) Whey use in meat products. Meat Process,22(7). 76-79
  9. Chin, K. B. (1997) Evaluation of konjac blcnds, soy protein isolate and lean muscle as fat replacements in low-fat meat batters. Ph.D.Dissertation, Texas A&M University. College Station, TX, USA
  10. Chin, K. B. 2000. Functional properties of heat-induced gelsprepared with salt soluble proteins, non-meat proteins andhydrocolloids in a model study. Food Sci. and Biotechnol., 9,368-371
  11. Chin, K. B. and Choi, S. H. (2001) Evaluation of the addition ofsodium lactate and a fat replacer in very low-fat bologna on theproduct quality and shelf-life effect during refrigerated storage. J.Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 30(5), 858-864
  12. Chin, K. B. and Chung, B. K. (2002) Development of low-fatmeat processing technology using interactions between meatprotein and hydrocolloids. I. Optimization of interactions betweenmeat proteins and hydrocolloids by model study. J. Korean Soc.Food Sci. Nutr., 31(3), 438-444 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.3.438
  13. Chin, K. B. and Lee H. C. (2002) Development of low-fat meatprocessing technology using interactions between meat protein andhydrocolloids. II. Development of low-fat sausages using theresults of model study. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 31(4),629-635 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.4.629
  14. Chin, K. B., Keeton, J. T., Longnecker, M. T. and Lamkey, J. W.(1998a) Functional, textural and microstructural properties oflow-fat bologna (model system) formulated with a konjac blend.J. Food Sci., 63, 801-807 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1998.tb17904.x
  15. Chin, K.. B., Keeton, J. T., Longnecker, M. T. and Lamkey, J. W.(1998b) Low-fat bologna in a model system with varying typesand levels of konjac blends. J. Food Sci., 63, 808-813 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1998.tb17905.x
  16. Chin, K. B., Keeton, J. T., Longnecker, M. T. and Lamkey, J. W.(1999) Utilization of soy protein isolate in a low-fat bolognamodel system with two level and two types of konjac blends Meat Sci.. 53, 45-57 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00035-2
  17. Chin, K. B., Keeton, J. T., Longnecker, M. T. and Lamkey, J. W.(2000) Evaluation of konjac blends and soy protein isolate as fatreplacements in a low-fat bologna. J. Food Sci., 65, 756-763 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb13582.x
  18. Choi, S. H. and Chin K.. B. (2002) Development of low-fatcomminuted sausage manufactured with various fat replacerssimilar textural characteristics to those with a regular fatcounterpart. Korean J. FoocI Sci. Technol.. 34(4), 577-582
  19. Chung, H. D. (2002) Evaluation of product quality of comminutedsausage sold in Gwangju. B. S. Thesis. Dept, of Animal Science,Chonnam National University
  20. Cross, H. R.., Berry, B. W. and Wells, L. H. (1980) Effect of fatlevel and cooking source on the chemical sensory and cookingproperties of ground beef patties. J. Food Sci., 45, 791-793 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1980.tb07450.x
  21. Decker, C. D., Conley, C. C. and Richert, S. H. (1986) Use ofisolated soy protein in the development of frankfurters withreduced levels of fat, calories, and cholesterol. Proceedings 40thReciprocal Meut Confercnce, St. Paul, MN, pp. 93-103
  22. Ensor, S.A., Calking, C.R. and Quint, L.N.(1987) Comparative evaluation of whey protein concerntrate soy protein isolate andcalcium-reduce non-fat dry milk as binders in an emulsion-typesausage. J. Food. Sci., 52, 1155-1158 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb14032.x
  23. Foegeding. E. A. and Ramsey, S. R. (1986) Effect of gums onlow-fat meat batters. J. Food Sci., 51, 1495-1498
  24. Foegcding, E. A. and Ramsey, S. R. (1987) Rheological and water holding properties of gelled meat batters containingiota-carrageenan, kappa-carrageenan or xanthan gum. J. Food Sci.,52, 549-553 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb06672.x
  25. Giese, J. (1996) Olestra; Properties, regulatory concens, andapplications. Food Technol., 50(3), 130-131
  26. Hill, S. E and Prusa, K.. J. (1985) Physical and sensory propertiesof lean ground beef patties containing methylcellulose andhydroxy propylmethyl cellulose. J. Food Quatity, 11, 331-337
  27. Huffman, D. L. and Egbert, W. R. (1990) Advances in leanground beef production. Alabama Agriculture Experiment Station.Bulletin, No 606. pp.1-27. Aubum University, AL
  28. Huffman, D. L., Egbert, W. R., Chen, C. and Dylewski, D. P.(1991) Technology for low-fat ground beef. Proceedings 44thReciprocal Meat Conference. pp.73-77
  29. Igoe, R. S. (1982) Hydrocolloids interactions useful in foodsystems. Food Technol., 36(4), 72-74
  30. John, L. C., Buyck, M. J., Keeton, J. T., Leu, R. and Smith, S.B. (1986). Sensory and physical attributes of frankfurters withreduced fat and elevated monounsaturated fats. J. Food Sci., 51,1144-1149 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb13069.x
  31. Keeton, J. T. (1994) Low-fat meat products - Technologicalproblems with processing. Meat Sci., 36, 261-276 https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(94)90045-0
  32. Keeton, J. T. (1996) Non-meat ingredients for low./no-fatprocessed meats. Proceedings 49th Reciprocal Meat Conference,pp. 23-31
  33. Keeton, J. T., Foegeding, E. A. and Patana-anake. (1984) Acomparison of non-meat proteins, sodium tripolyphosphate andprocessing temperature effects on physical and sensory propertiesof frankfurters. J. Food Sci., 49, 1462-1465 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb12821.x
  34. Kinsella, J. E. (1979) Functional properties of soy proteins. J.Amer. Oil. Chem. Soc.. 56, 242-258 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02671468
  35. Korean Food Regulations. (1997) Food standard and criterions:Meat products. Korean Food Industrial Association. pp. 225-229
  36. K-osmark, R. (1996) Salatrim; Properties and applications. FoodTechnol, 50(4), 98-101
  37. Lin, K. C., K-eeton, J. T., Gilchrist, C. L. and Cross, H. L. (1988)Comparison of carboxylmethyl cellulose with differing molecularfeatures in low-fat frankfurters. J. Food Sci., 53, 1592-1595 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb07792.x
  38. Liu, K.. C., Huffmann, D. L. and Egbert, W. R. (1991) Replacemetof beef fat with partially hydrohenated plant oil in lean groundbeef patties. J. Food Sci., 56, 861-862 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb05401.x
  39. McMindes, M. K.. (1991) Application of isolated soy protein inlow-fat meat products. Food Technol., 45, 61-64
  40. Miles, R. S. (1996) Developing and manufacturing low-/Now-fatproducts and processes. 49th Reciprocal Meat Conference, pp17-20
  41. Mittel, G. S. and Usbome, W. R. (1985) Meat emulsion extender.Food Technot., 39, 121-130
  42. Moon, J. D., Park, G. B., Lee, H. G., K-im, Y. G., Jin, S. K., Lee,l. K., Shin, T. S. and Song, D. J. (1996a). Effects of seed oils,water and carrageenan on the sensory properties of low-fatsausages during cold storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Ani. Resour.,16, 121-126
  43. Moon, J. D., Park, G. B., K.im, J. S., Park, T. S., Lee, l. K., Shin,T. S. and Song, D. J. (1996b). Effects of seed oils, water and carrageenan on the texture property of low-fat sausages duringcold storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Ani. Resour., 16, 127-133
  44. Murano, E. A. and Rust, R. E. (1995) General microbial profileof low-fat frankfurters formulated with sodium lactate and atexture modifier. Muscle Foods, 18, 313-323
  45. Osburn, W. N. and Keeton, J. T. (1994) Konjac flour gels as fatsubstitutes in low-fat pre-rigor fresh pork sausage. J. Food Sci.,58, 484-489
  46. Park, J., Rhee, K. S., Keeton, J. T. and Rhee, K. C. (1989)Properties of low-fat frankfurters containing monosaturated andomega-3 polysaturated oils. J. Food Sci., 54, 500-504 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb04637.x
  47. Park, L. L. and Carpenter, J. A. (1987) Functionality of sixnon-meat proteins in meat emulsion system. J. Food Sci., 52,271-274, 278 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb06590.x
  48. Rhee, K. S., Ziprin, Y. A. and Davison, T. L. (1990) Charac-teristics of pork products from swine fed a high monounsaturatedfat diet; Part 2-uncured processed products. Meat Sci., 27,343-357 https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(90)90070-M
  49. Sanderson, G. R. (1981) Polysaccharides in foods. Food Technol., 35, 50-57, 83
  50. Shackelford, S. D., Miller, M. F., Haydon, K. D. and Reagan, J.O. (1990a) Evaluation of feeding elevated levels of monounsaturated fats to growing-finishing swine on acceptability of low-fatsausage. J. Food Sci., 55, 937-941 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb01569.x
  51. Shackelford, S. D., Miller, M. F., Haydon, K. D. and Reagan, J.O. (1990b) Effect of feeding elevated levels of monounsaturatedfats to growing swine on acceptability of low-fat sausages. J. Food Sci., 55, 1497-1500 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb03553.x
  52. Skrede, G. (1989) Comparison of various types of starch whenused in meat sausage. Meat Sci., 25, 282-287 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00726225
  53. Troutt, E. S., Hunt, M. C., Johnson, D. B., Claus, J. R., Kastner,C. L. and Kropf, D. H. (1992) Characteristics of low-fat groundbeef containing texture-modiIying ingredients. J. Food Sci.. 5719-24
  54. Tye, R. J. (1991) Konjac flour: Properties of and applications.Food Technol., 45, 87-92
  55. Uram, G. A., Carpenter, J. A. and Reagan, J. O. (1984) Effectsof emulsions, Particle size and levels of added water on theacceptability of smoked sausages. J. Food Sci., 49, 966-967 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb13257.x
  56. USDA. (1996) 'Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, andcholesterol content of meat products. Subpart G-cooked sausage.Code of federal Regulations. Title 9, Pt. 317. 362. Office ofFederal Register, National Archives and Records Administration,GSA, Washington, DC
  57. Wallingford, L. and Labuza, T. P. (1983) Evaluation of waterbinding properties of food hydrocolloids by physical/chemicalmethods and in a low-fat emulsion. J. Food Sci., 48, 1-5 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1983.tb14775.x
  58. Wanstedt, K.. G., Seidelman, S. C., Donnelly, L. S. and Quenzer,N. M. (1981) Sensory attributes of precooked, calcium alginatescoated pork patties. J. Food Prot., 44, 732-735 https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-44.10.732