Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Egg Mass Formation by the Northern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapia

곤충병원성 선충이 당근뿌리혹선충의 난낭 형성에 미치는 영향

  • 김형환 (농촌진흥청 원예연구소 원예환경과) ;
  • 추호렬 (경상대학교 농생물학과 응용생명과학원) ;
  • 조명래 (농촌진흥청 원예연구소 원예환경과) ;
  • 전흥용 (농촌진흥청 원예연구소 원예환경과) ;
  • 임명순 (농촌진흥청 원예연구소 원예환경과)
  • Published : 2002.09.01


The entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae All strain (ScA), S.glaseri NC strain (SgN) and H. bacteriophora NC 1 strain (HbN), were evaluated for the effects on egg mass formation by the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla in pot experiment using tomato. In the first experiment, 2.5$\times$10$^{5}$ infective juveniles (Ijs) of entomopathogenic nematodes were inoculated to 100 g of the soil infected with ca. 450 Ijs of M. hapla/100 ㎤ in 150 $mell$ container. The number of egg mass was significantly decreased to 9.4-36.5 in ScA, to 5.7-24.7 in SgN and to 11.2-16.0 in HbN treatments compared with 62.5 in M.hapla alone. In the second experiment, ScA and S.carpocapsae Pocheon strain (ScP) and SgN and S.glaseri Dongrae strain (SgD) were treated to 350 g of the soil infected with 100, 200 M.hapla larvae/100 ㎤ in 450 $mell$ container The entomopathogenic nematodes were inoculated at the rate of 2,020 Ijs and 1.6$\times$105 Ijs in 350 g soil. The number of egg mass of M.hapla were significantly decreased in the entomopathogenic nematode treatments compared with M.hapla alone although no differences were observed among Steinernema species, strains, or infection concentrations. Treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes 3 days before M.hapla inoculation were more effective on reduction of egg mass formation than those of 3 days after M.hapla treatments. Growth of tomato was not affected by entomopathogenic nematode treatments.


Steinernema carpocapsae All and Pocheon strain;S.glaseri NC and Dongrae strain;Heterorhabditis bacteriophora NC 1 strian;Meloidogyne hapla;Egg mass


  1. Bird, A.B. and J.J. Bird. 1986. Observations on the use of insect parasitic nematodes as a means of biological control of root-knot nematodes. Intem. J. Parasit. 16: 511-516 https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(86)90086-X
  2. Cho, M.R., B.C. Lee, D.S. Kim, H.Y. Jeon, M.S. Yiem and J.O. Lee. 2000. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in fruit vegetable production areas in Korea and identification of root-knot nematodes by enzyme phenotypes. Korean J. Appl. Entomol.39: 123-129
  3. Choi, Y.E. 1996. Nematodes of Korea. pp. 182-186. Ililsa Daegu. Korea
  4. Choo, H.Y., H.K. Kaya, S.M. Lee, H.H. Kim and D.W. Lee. 1998. Biocontrol research with nematodes against insect pests in Korea. Jpn. J. Nematol. 28: 29-41 https://doi.org/10.3725/jjn1993.28.supplement_29
  5. Hewlett, T.E. and A.C. Tarjan. 1983. Sinopsis of the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. Nematropica 13: 79-102
  6. Thomson, W.T. 1992. A worldwide guide to beneficial animals (Insect/Mites/Nematodes). Thomson pulications. U.S.A. 91 pp
  7. Kim, H.H., H.Y. Choo, C.G. Park, S.M. Lee and J.B. Kim. 1998. Biological control of the northrn root-knot nematode, Meloi-doeyne hapla with plant extract. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 37: 199-206
  8. Hartman, K.M. and J.N. Sasser. 1985d. Identification of Me10i-dogyne species on the basis of differential host test and perineal -pattern morphology. pp. 69-77, In An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. Vol. II. Methodology, eds. by K.R. Baker, C.C. Cater and J.N. Sasser. 223 pp. North Carolina State University Graphics. Raleigh. North Carolina
  9. Kaya, H.K. and R. Gaugler. 1993. Entomopathogenic nematodes. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 38: 181-206 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.38.010193.001145
  10. Jarosz, J., M. Balcerzak and H. Skrzypek. 1991. Involvement of larvicidal toxins in pathogenesis of insect parasitism with the rhabditoid nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Entomophaga 36: 361-368 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02377940
  11. Lewis, E.E., P.S. Grewal and S. Sardanelli. 2001. Interactions between the Steinernema feltiae-Xenorhabdus bovienii insect pathogen complex and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Biological Control 21: 55-62 https://doi.org/10.1006/bcon.2001.0918
  12. Baker, K.R., D.P. Schmitt and J.L. Imbriani. 1985. Nematode population dynamics with emphasis on determing damage potential to crops. pp. 135-148, In An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. Vol. 11. Methodology, eds. by K.R. Baker, C.C. Cater and J.N. Sasser. 223 pp. North Carolina State University Graphics. Raleigh. North Carolina
  13. Birch, A.N.E., W.M. Robertson and L.E. Fellows. 1993. Plant products to control plant parasitic nematodes. Pestic. Sci. 39: 141-145 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780390207
  14. Choo, H.Y., S.M. Lee, B.K. Chung, Y.D. Park and H.H. Kim. 1995. Pathogenicity of Korean entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinemematidae and Heterorhabditidae) against local agriCU-Itural and forest insect pests. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 34: 314-320
  15. Daykin, M.E. and R.S. Hussey. 1985c. Staining and hiStOPath0-logical techniques in nematology. pp. 135-148, In An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. Vol. II. Methodology, eds. by K.R. Baker, C.C. Cater and J.N. Sasser. 223 pp. North Carolina State University Graphics. Raleigh. North Carolina
  16. Dutky, S.R., J.V. Thompson and G.E. Cantwell. 1964. A techni-que for the mass propagation ofthe DD-136 nematode. J. Insect Pathol. 6: 417-422
  17. Grewal, P. 2000. Nematicidal effects of entomopathogenic nema-todes and their symbiotic bacteria on plant-parasitic nematodes. Soci. Inver. Pathol. XXXIII Annual Meeting Guanajuato, Mexico. p. 48
  18. Ishibashi, N. and E. Kondo. 1986. Steinemema feltiae (DD-136) and S. etaseri: Persistence in soil and bark compost and their influence on native nematodes. J. Nematol. 18: 310-316
  19. Akhurst, R.J. and G.B. Dunpy. 1993. Tripartite interactions between symbiotically associated entomopathogenic bacteria, nematodes, and their insect hosts. pp. 1-23, In Parasities and pathogens of insects. Vol. 2: Pathogens, eds. by N.E. Beckage, S.N. Thompson and B.A. Federici. 294 pp. Academic Press. San Diego
  20. Gaugler, R., L. Lebeck, B. Nakagaki and G.M. Boush. 1980. Ohentation of the entomogenous nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae to carbon dioxide. Environ. Entomol. 9: 649-652 https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/9.5.649
  21. Han, M.W., G.H. Lee, G.S. Lee, J.H. Kim, Y.H. Kim and J.O. Lee. 1997. Biological control of greenhouse insect pests in Korea. pp. 44-60, In Biological control of insect pests, eds. by K.S. Boo, K.C. Park and J.K. Jung. 186 pp. Proc. Int. Symp Suwon, Korea
  22. Baker, K.R. 1985. Nematode extraction and bioassays. pp. 19-35, In An advanced treatise on Meloidoeyne. Vol. 11. Methodology, eds. by K.R. Baker, C.C. Cater and J.N. Sasser. 223 pp. North Carolina State University Graphics. Raleigh. North Carolina
  23. Gouge, D.H., A.A. Otto, A. Schirocki and N.G.M. Hague. 1994. Effects of steinernematids on the root-knot nematode Meloi-doeyne javanica. Ann. appl. Biol. 124: 134-135
  24. Ishibashi, N. and D.R. Choi. 1991. Biological control of soil pests by mixed application of entomopathogenic and fungivorous nematodes. J. Nematol. 23: 175-181
  25. Choo, H.Y., H.K. Kim, J.C. Park, S.M. Lee and J.I. Lee. 1987. Insects and nematodes associated with horticultural crops and effect of nursery soil conditions on the infection of root-knot nematode. Korean J. Plant Prot. 26: 195-201
  26. Hatakeda, K., S. Ito, Y. Ikusima and T. Asano. 1985. A new nematicidal compound in french marigold. Jpn. J. Nematol. 15: 11-13
  27. Choi, Y.E. and Y.J. La. 1994. Plant Nematology. pp. 61-65. Hyangmunsa. Seoul. Korea
  28. SAS Institute. 1988. SAS/STAT guide for personal computers, version 6 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC
  29. Woodring, J.L. and H.K. Kaya. 1988. Steinemematid and heteror-habditid nematodes: A handbook of techniques. Southem Coop. Ser. Bull. 331, Arkansas Agri. Exp. Stn. Fayetteville, AR. 29pp