Eating Frequency of Rice vs. Bread at Breakfast and Nutrient and Food-Group Intake among Japanese Female College Students

  • Sasaki, Satoshi (Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Institute, East, Kashiwa, Japan National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan) ;
  • Shimoda, Taeko (Faculty of Home Economics, Kyushu Women′s University, Kitakyushu, Japan) ;
  • Katagiri, Akane (School of Health Sciences and Nursing, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) ;
  • Tsuji, Tomiko (Graduate school of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan) ;
  • Amano, Keiko (Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan)
  • Published : 2002.07.01


We examined the association between eating frequency of rice vs. bread at breakfast and nutrient and food-group intake among 1771 female college students aged 18-20 years. The frequency of main staples at breakfast and the nutrient and food group intake for the previous month were assessed with a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. We divided main staples into rice, bread, and noodles. As the eating frequency for noodles was almost negligible, we computed the difference of eating frequency of rice minus that of bread(mean = 0.7 times/week). Among 16 nutrients examined, the difference of eating frequency correlated significantly and negatively only with fat intake, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA) (r=-0.31, p<0.001), and significantly and positively with the intake of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid, iron, sodium, protein, carotene, potassium, dietary fiber, and vitamin C (r=0.08-0.15, p<0.001) after adjusting for the energy intake, the residential area, the population size, and the living status with their families. In conclusion, the more frequent intake of rice compared to bread at breakfast correlated with the higher intake of the several vitamins and minerals, and the lower intake of fat, especially SFA. The only unfavorable aspect of the rice group was the higher sodium intake.


  1. Akabane M, Ono F, Kawabata A, Goto S, Saigo M (1977) : Studies on the types of food consumed. Investigation of food intake (Part I). Jpn J Nutr 35 : 45-53 (in Japanese)
  2. Kato I, Tominaga S, Ito Y, Kobayashi S, Yoshii Y, Matsuura A, Kameya A, Kano T(1990) : A comparative case-control analysis of stomach cancer and atrophic gastritis. Cancer Res 50 : 6559-6564
  3. Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Sampson L, Willett WC(1999) : Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 69 : 243-249
  4. Ministry of Health and Welfare (1999a) : Kokumin Eiyou no Genjou (Results of National Nutrition Survey, 1997). Daiichi Shuppan Publishers, Tokyo (in Japanese)
  5. Ministry of Health and Welfare (1999b) : Recommendations of dietary allowances, 6th revised edition : dietary reference intakes pp.1-193
  6. Nagata C, Sugiyama C, Shimizu H(1999) : Nutrient intakes in relation to style of breakfast and taste preference. J Epidemiol 9 : 91-98
  7. Nishikawa H, Toyokawa H (1999) : A study on the changing of food consumption pattern. Minzoku Eisei 65 : 265-272 (in Japanese)
  8. Sasaki S, Yanagibori R, Amano K (1998a) : Self-administered diet history questionnaire developed for health education : a relative validation of the test-version by comparison with 3-day diet record in women. J Epidemiol 8 : 203-215
  9. Sasaki S, Yanagibori R, Amano K(1998b) : Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for assessment of sodium and potassium. Comparison with single 24-hour urinary excretion. Jpn Circ J 62 : 431-435
  10. Sasaki S, Tsuji T, Katagiri A, Shimoda T, for the Diets of the Fresh Students in Dietetic Courses Study Group (2000a) : Association between the number of food items bought in convenience stores and nutrient and food-group intakes - A survey of first-year female college students taking dietetic courses -. J Jpn Soc Nutr Sci 53 : 215-226 (in Japanese with English abstract)
  11. Sasaki S, Ushio F, Amano K, Morihara M, Todoriki T, Uehara Y, Toyooka T (2000b) : Serum biomarker-based validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 46 : 285-296
  12. Sasaki S, Tsuji T (2000) : Influence of co-habitation on a family line resemblance in nutrient and food-group intake among three generations of Japanese women. Jpn J Nutr 58 : 195-206(in Japanese with English abstract)
  13. Shimizu H, Ohwaki A, Takatsuka N, Ido M, Kawakami N, Nagata C, Inaba S (1999) : Validity and reproducibility of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for a cohort study in Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol 29 : 38-44
  14. Toyokawa H(1978) : Nutritional status in Japan from the viewpoint of numerical ecology. Soc Sci Med 12 : 517-524
  15. Willett W, Stampfer MJ (1986) : Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analysis. Am J Epidemiol 124 : 17-27
  16. Yoshiike N, Matsumura Y, Iwaya M, Sugiyama M, Yamaguchi M (1996) : National Nutrition Survey in Japan, J Epodemiol 6 : S189-S200