DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Plasma Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Cr of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood during Pregnancy

  • Lee, Jong-Im ;
  • Lim, Hyeon-Sook ;
  • Cho, Young-Sook
  • Published : 2002.09.01

Abstract

Anemia is prevalent among pregnant women in Korea, and Fe deficiency anemia is a major nutritional problem throughout the world. Because studies of Cu, Mn, and Cr levels excluding Fe are rare, we were interested in changes in the nutritional status of these trace minerals and their relationship to hematogenesis. Accordingly, we determined the changes in plasma Fe, Cu, Mn, and Cr concentrations of maternal and umbilical cord blood during pregnancy, and evaluated the relationships between them at different time points during pregnancy. A total of 81 women participated in the study: 26 subjects in the first trimester, 23 in the second, and 32 in the third trimester. Plasma Fe levels were lower significantly (p<0.05) in the third trimester. Plasma Cu level ($\mu\textrm{g}$/dL) in each trimester were 86.6$\pm$13.8, 111.6$\pm$27.9, and 114.0$\pm$29.7, respectively; with significant increases (p<0.()5) in the second and third trimester. Plasma Mn concentrations (pg/dL) in each trimester were 212.6$\pm$89.0, 234.0$\pm$140.0, and 240.3$\pm$166.0, respectively and tended to increase, though not significantly, as the pregnancies progressed. The plasma concentrations of Cr (pg/dL) in each trimester were 3.7$\pm$2.0, 3.1$\pm$1.0, and 2.4$\pm$1.2, respectively; and was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the third trimester. In umbilical cord blood, the plasma level of Fe was 194.8$\pm$74.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/dL, Cu was 57.5$\pm$10.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/dL, Mn was 482.4$\pm$111.1 pg/dL, and Cr was 9.3$\pm$2.8 pg/dL. Plasma concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Cr of cord blood were 300 %, 50 %, 200 %, and 370% as compared to those of maternal blood in the third trimester. These results suggest that an active transport mechanism for the transport of Fe, Mn, and Cr from mother to fetus may exist, whereas, for Cu, the placenta appears to have a blocking effect on the transport from mother to baby.

Keywords

Cu;Mn;Cr;cord blood

References

  1. Gopalan C. 1995. Micronutrient deficiencies: public health implications. Indian J Pediatr 62: 157-167 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02752321
  2. Arnaud J, Preziosi P, Mashako L, Galan P, Nsibu C, Favier A, Kapongo C, Hercberg S. 1994. Serum trace elements in Zairian mothers and their newborns. Eur J Clin Nutr 48: 341-348
  3. Hambidge KM. 1985. Trace minerals and fetal development. Curr Con Concepts Nutr 14: 73-82
  4. Skikne B, Baynes RD. 1994. Iron absorption. In Iron Metabolism in Health and Disease. Brock JH, Halliday JW, Pippard MJ, Powell LW, eds. WB Saunders, London. p 151-187
  5. Tumulund JR. 1994. Copper. In Modern nutrition in health and disease. Shils ME, ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. p 231-241
  6. Vir SC, Love AH, Thompson W. 1981. Serum and hair concentrations of copper during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 2382-2388
  7. Hurley LS, Keen CL. 1987. Manganese. In Trace Elements in Human Health and Animal Nutrition. Underwood E, Metz W, eds. Academic Press, New York. p 185-223
  8. Rossander-Hulten L, Brune M, Sandstrom B, Lonnerdal B. 1991. Competitive inhibition of iron absorption by manganese and zinc in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 54: 152-256
  9. Krachler M, Rossipal E, Micetic-Turk D. 1999. Trace element transfer from the mother to the newborn: investigations on triplets of colostrum, maternal and umbilical cord sera. Eur J Clin Nutr 53: 486-494 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600781
  10. Keen CL, Bell JG, Lonnerdal B. 1986. The effect of age on manganese uptake and retention fron milk and infant formulas in rats. J Nutr 116: 395-402
  11. Anderson RA. 1986. Chromium metabolism and its role in disease processes man. Clin Physiol Biochem 4: 31-41
  12. Ani M, Moshtaghie AA. 1992. The effect of chromium on parameters related to iron metabolism. Biol Trace Elem Res 32: 57-64 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02784588
  13. Hambidge KM, Rodgerson DO. 1969. Comparison of hair chromium levels of nulliparous and parous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 103: 320-321 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(69)90489-X
  14. Gunton JE, Hams G, Hitchman R, McElduff A. 2001. Serum chromium does not predict glucose tolerance in late pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 99-104
  15. Kim EK, Lee KH. 1998. Assessment of the intake and availability of dietary iron and nutrition knowledge in pregnant women. Korean J Community Nutrition 3: 53-61
  16. Kye SH, Paik HY. 1993. Iron nutriture and related dietary factors in apparently healthy young Korean women (1): Comparison and evaluation of blood biochemical indices for assessment of iron nutritional status. Korean J Nutrition 26: 692-702
  17. Nam HS, Ly SY. 1992. A survey on iron intakes and nutritional status of female college students of Chungnam National University. Korean J Nutrition 25: 404-412
  18. Lee JI, Lim HS. 2001. A longitudinal study in maternal iron and folate status during and after pregnancy in Korean women. Korean J Community Nutrition 6: 182-191
  19. Lee JI, Lim HS. 2001. Iron status of pregnant women and evaluation of cut-off levels of Hb, Hct, TIBC, sTfR, sTfR: ferritin ratio for assessment of iron deficiency. Korean J Human Ecology 4: 36-45
  20. Chang NS, Kang MH, Paik HY, Kim IH, Cho YW, Park SC, Shin YW. 1993. Serum folate and iron levels of pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant, non-lactating women. Korean J Nutrition 26: 67-75
  21. Yu KH, Yoon JS. 2000. Comparison and evaluation of hematological indices for assessment of iron nutritional status in Korean pregnant women (III). Korean J Nutrtion 33: 532- 539
  22. Maret S, Henkin RI. 1971. Simultaneous direct estimation by atomic absorption spectrophotometry of Cu and Zn in serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem 17: 369- 372
  23. Song MS, Lee YC, Cho SS, Kim BC. 1992. SAS's Guide. Chayu Academy Press, Seoul
  24. Carriaga MT, Skikne BS, Finley B, Cutler B, Cook JD. 1991. Serum transferrin receptor for the detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 54: 1077-1081
  25. Ha EJ, Na HB. 1993. The study on concentration of plasma zinc and copper of nonpregnant and pregnant women in Korea. Korean J Nutrition 26: 347-356
  26. Martin-Lagos F, Navarro-Alarcon M, Terres-Martos C, Lopez-Garcia de la Serrana H, Perez-Valero V, Lopez- Martinez MC. 1998. Zinc and copper concentration in serum from Spanish women during pregnancy. Biol Trace Elem Res 61: 61-70 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02784041
  27. Speich M. 1990. Copper in the normal and diabetic pregnancy and in the perinatal period. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 85: 34-39
  28. Tholin K, Sandstrom B, Palm R, Hallmans G. 1995. Changes in blood manganese levels during pregnancy in iron supplemented and non supplemented women. J Trace Elem Med Biol 9: 13-17 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0946-672X(11)80003-9
  29. Favier A, Ruffieux D. 1983. Physiological variations of serum levels of copper, zinc, iron and manganese. Biomed Pharmacother 37: 462-466
  30. Spencer A. 1999. Whole blood manganese levels in pregnancy and the neonate. Nutrition 15: 731-734 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00144-6
  31. Kim DK. 1979. Serum iron, TIBC, and transferrin saturation in cord blood of newborns and normal pregnancy. Ph.D Dissertation. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Chosun National University, Medical College
  32. Park DM. 1983. Evaluation by plasma ferritin assay of the influence of maternal and newborn's iron stores. Ph.D Dissertation. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University, Medical College
  33. Maria JG, Rosa MO, Olga M. 1993. Relationship between iron status in pregnant women and their newborn babies- Investigation in a Spanish population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 72: 534-537 https://doi.org/10.3109/00016349309058158
  34. Casanova Bellido M, Moreno Vazquez AM, Ferriz Mas B, Casas Roman M, Rico de Cos S, Tapia Barrios JM. 1996. Copper in the neonatal period. Maternal-fetal relations. An Esp Pediatr 44: 145-148
  35. Algerwie MH, Khatri PC. 1998. Serum copper in newborns and their mothers. Indian J Pediatr 65: 899-903 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02831358
  36. Iqbal AS, Shahidullah M, Islam MN, Akhter S, Banu S. 2001. Serum zinc and copper levels in the maternal blood and cord blood of neonates. Indian J Pediatr 68: 523-526 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723246
  37. Fattah MM, Ibrahim FK, Ramadan MA, Sammour MB. 1976. Ceruloplasmin and copper level in maternal and cord blood in the placenta in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 55: 383-390 https://doi.org/10.3109/00016347609158520
  38. Wallach S, Verch RL. 1984. Placental transport of chromium. J Am Coll Nutr 3: 69-74 https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.1984.10720038