Surface Ozone Episode Due to Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange and Free Troposphere-Boundary Layer Exchange in Busan During Asian Dust Events

  • Moon, Y.S. (Department of Physics, University of Toronto) ;
  • Kim, Y.K. (Department of Atmospheric Science, Pusan National University) ;
  • K. Strong (Department of Physics, University of Toronto) ;
  • Kim, S.H. (Meteorological Research Institute, Korean Meteorological Agency) ;
  • Lim, Y.K. (Department of Atmospheric Science, Pusan National University) ;
  • Oh, I.B. (Department of Atmospheric Science, Pusan National University) ;
  • Song, S.K. (Department of Atmospheric Science, Pusan National University)
  • Published : 2002.06.01


The current paper reports on the enhancement of O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$, and aerosols during the Asian dust event that occurred over Korea on 1 May 1999. To confirm the origin and net flux of the O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$, and aerosols, the meteorological parameters of the weather conditions were investigated using Mesoscale Meteorological Model 5(MM5) and the TOMS total ozone and aerosol index, the back trajectory was identified using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model(HYSPLIT), and the ozone and ozone precursor concentrations were determined using the Urban Ashed Model(UAM). In the presence of sufficiently large concentrations of NO$\sub$x/, the oxidation of CO led to O$_3$ formation with OH, HO$_2$, NO, and NO$_2$ acting as catalysts. The sudden enhancement of O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$ and aerosols was also found to be associated with a deepening cut-off low connected with a surface cyclone and surface anticyclone located to the south of Korea during the Asian dust event. The wave pattern of the upper trough/cut-off low and total ozone level remained stationary when they came into contact with a surface cyclone during the Asian dust event. A typical example of a stratosphere-troposphere exchange(STE) of ozone was demonstrated by tropopause folding due to the jet stream. As such, the secondary maxima of ozone above 80 ppbv that occurred at night in Busan, Korea on 1 May 2001 were considered to result from vertical mixing and advection from a free troposphere-boundary layer exchange in connection with an STE in the upper troposphere. Whereas the sudden enhancement of ozone above 100 ppbv during the day was explained by the catalytic reaction of ozone precursors and transport of ozone from a slow-moving anticyclone area that included a high level of ozone and its precursors coming from China to the south of Korea. The aerosols identified in the free troposphere over Busan, Korea on 1 May 1999 originated from the Taklamakan and Gobi deserts across the Yellow River. In particular, the 1000m profile indicated that the source of the air parcels was from an anticyclone located to the south of Korea. The net flux due to the first invasion of ozone between 0000 LST and 0600 LST on 1 May 1999 agreed with the observed ground-based background concentration of ozone. From 0600 LST to 1200 LST, the net flux of the second invasion of ozone was twice as much as the day before. In this case, a change in the horizontal wind direction may have been responsible for the ozone increase.


STE;tropopause folding;vertical mixing and advection;free troposphere-boundary layer exchange;catalytic reaction;transport;net flux


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