Proton Effect on the Degradation of Phenolic Compound by Activated Sludge and Nocardia asteroides

활성슬러지 혼합미생물과 Nocardia asteroides에 의한 페놀화합물 분해시 양성자이온의 영향

  • 조관형 (청운대학교 토목환경공학과) ;
  • 조영태 (충청대학 환경화공학부) ;
  • 우달식 (한국계면공학연구소)
  • Published : 2002.06.01


This study was investigated to evaluate the effect of the sodium ion and pH on toxicity of dinitrophenol at high concentrations (0.41 to 0.54 mM), over a sodium concentration range of 0.1 mM to 107 mM and over a pH range of 5 to 9. The concentration of sodium ions in the activated sludge mixed liquor seemed to have very little effect on dinitrophenol toxicity. However, lack of sodium in the growth media resulted in a reduction of the dinitrophenol degradation rate by bacterial isolate from the activated sludge culture, which has been identified as Nocardia asteroides. Dinitrophenol inhibition was found to be strongly dependent on mixed liquor pH. The dinitrophenol degradation rate was highest in the pH range of 6.95 to 7.84; at pH 5.94 degradation of 75 mg/L dinitrophenol was significantly inhibited; at pH < 5.77, dinitrophenol degradation was completely inhibited after approximately 30% of the dinitrophenol was degraded.


Acclimation;Inhibition;Nitrophenol;pH;Sodium ion


  1. Bruhn, C., H. Lenke, and H. J. Knackmuss, 1987, Nitrosubstituted aromatic compounds as nitrogen source for bacteria, Appl. Environ Microbiol., 53, 208-210.
  2. Shea, P. J., J. Weber, and M. R. Overcash, 1983, Biological activities of 2, 4-dinitrophenol in plant-soil systems, Residue Rev., 87, 2-41.
  3. Lenke, S., D. H. Pieper, C. Bruhn, and H. J. Knackmuss, 1992, Degradation of 2,4-Dinitro-phenol by Two Rhodococcus erythropolis Strains, HL 24-1 and HL 24-2, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2928-2932.
  4. American Public Health Assoc., American Water Works Assoc., and Water Environ. Fed., 1995, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th ed., Washington, D.C., USA.
  5. Avetisyan, A. V., A. V. Bogachev, R. A. Murtasina, and V. P. Skulachev, 1992, ATP-driven Na' transport and Na--dependent ATP synthesis in Escherichia coli grown at low $\Delta\mu_H$. FEES Lett., 306, 199-202.
  6. Mayer, F. L. Jr. and M. R. Ellersieck, 1988, Experiences with single-species tests for acute toxic effects in freshwater animals, Ambio., 17, 367-375.
  7. Hilpert, W., B. Schink, and P. Dimroth, 1984, Life by a new decarboxylation-dependent energy conservation mechanism with $Na^+$ as coupling ion, EMBO J., 3, 1665-1680.
  8. Moos, L. P., E. J. Kirsch, R. F. Wukasch, and C. P. L. Grady, Jr., 1983, Pentachlorophenol biodegradation, I. Aerobic. Water Res., 17, 1575-1584.
  9. Avetisyan, A. V., P. A. Dibrov, V. P. Skulachev, and M. V. Sokolov, 1989, The Na'-motive in Escherichia coli., FEES Lett., 254, 17-21.
  10. Gundersen, K. and H. L. Jensen, 1956, A soil bacterium decomposing organic nitrocompounds, Acta Agric. Scand., 6, 100-114.
  11. Klecka, G. M. and W. J. Maier, 1985, Kinetics of microbial growth on pentachlorophenol, Appl. Environ Microbiol., 49, 46-53.
  12. Silverstein, J., T. F. Hess, N. A. Mutaari, and R. Brown, 1994, Enumeration of toxic compound degrading bacteria in a multi-species activated sludge biomass, Water Sci. Technol., 29, 309-316.
  13. Dimroth, P., 1987, Sodium ion transport decarboxylases and other aspects of sodium ion cycling in bacteria, Microbiol. Rev., 51, 320-340.
  14. Sprague, J. B., 1985, Factors that modify toxicity, In Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology, G. M. Rand and S. R. Petrocelli (eds.), Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., USA., 124-163pp.