Effects of Wafer Cleaning and Heat Treatment in Glass/Silicon Wafer Direct Bonding

유리/실리콘 기판 직접 접합에서의 세정과 열처리 효과

  • Published : 2002.06.01


We have investigated the effects of various wafers cleaning on glass/Si bonding using 4 inch Pyrex glass wafers and 4 inch silicon wafers. The various wafer cleaning methods were examined; SPM(sulfuric-peroxide mixture, $H_2SO_4:H_2O_2$ = 4 : 1, $120^{\circ}C$), RCA(company name, $NH_4OH:H_2O_2:H_2O$ = 1 : 1 : 5, $80^{\circ}C$), and combinations of those. The best room temperature bonding result was achieved when wafers were cleaned by SPM followed by RCA cleaning. The minimum increase in surface roughness measured by AFM(atomic force microscope) confirmed such results. During successive heat treatments, the bonding strength was improved with increased annealing temperatures up to $400^{\circ}C$, but debonding was observed at $450^{\circ}C$. The difference in thermal expansion coefficients between glass and Si wafer led debonding. When annealed at fixed temperatures(300 and $400^{\circ}C$), bonding strength was enhanced until 28 hours, but then decreased for further anneal. To find the cause of decrease in bonding strength in excessively long annealing time, the ion distribution at Si surface was investigated using SIMS(secondary ion mass spectrometry). tons such as sodium, which had been existed only in glass before annealing, were found at Si surface for long annealed samples. Decrease in bonding strength can be caused by the diffused sodium ions to pass the glass/si interface. Therefore, maximum bonding strength can be achieved when the cleaning procedure and the ion concentrations at interface are optimized in glass/Si wafer direct bonding.


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