절지동물 계통에 관한 논쟁

On the Debates of Arthropod Phylogeny

  • 황의욱 (경북대학교 사범대학 생물교육과)
  • 발행 : 2002.04.01

초록

백만종을 넘어 천만종에 이를 것으로 추산되는 절지동물 (Phylum Arthropoda)은 지구상에 현존하는 가장 번성한 동물군 중의 하나로서 캠브리아기 생물의 빅뱅 이후 급변하는 환경속에서도 멸종의 길을 걷지 않고 성공적으로 살아남아 오늘날의 다양성을 유지하고 있다. 멸종한 절지동물인 삼엽충(Trilobita)을 제외하면, 현재 서식하고 있는 절지동물들은 다섯 아문으로 나누어진다: 육각류(Hexapoda), 갑각류(Crustacea), 다지류(Myriapoda) 협각류 (Chelicerata), 바다거미류(Pycnogonida), 계통분류학자들은 절지동물과 인접분류군들 (arthropod relatives) -유조동물(Onychophora), 완보동물(Tardigrada), 오구동물(Pentastomida)-의 상호 유연관계와 선구통물 내에서의 계통학적 위치들, 절지동물의 단계통성 혹은 다계통성, 절지동물의 주요 다섯 아문들 간의 계통유연관계 등에 관한 논쟁들을 지난 세기 내내 이어왔다. 최근에 선구등불을 크게 탈피동물 (Ecdysozoa)과 촉수담륜동물 (Lophotrochozoa)로 나누고 탈피동물 내에서 절지동물의 인접분류군 중의 하나가 선형동물 (Nematoda)일 수 있다는 새로운 동물 계통이 발표된 바 있다. 본 종설에서는 이 체계를 기본으로하여 선구동물 내에서의 절지동물과 그 인접분류군들의 계통학적 위치 및 상호유연관계를 우선적으로 언급하므로서 문(Phylum) 준위에서의 절지동물 계통에 관한 논쟁들을 소개하고자 한다. 그 연후에 적지동물의 단계통성에 관한 논쟁, 절지동물 주요 네 그룹 (아문)간의 계통유연관계에 관한 논쟁들에 초점을 맞추어 논하고자 한다. 절지동물의 주요 다섯 아문 중 하나인 바다거미류 (상대적으로 작은 분류군임)의 경우, 다른 주요 네 그룹 (Euarthropoda)의 자매 군으로서 가장 원시적인 형태의 절지류인지, 아니면 협각류의 자매군인지가 논란이 되고는 있을지라도 본 종설에서는 비중있게 다루지 않았다.

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