DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Milk Production, Blood Metabolites and Circulatory Levels of Hormones in Crossbred Goats

  • Singh, Mahendra (Dairy Cattle Physiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Ludri, R.S. (Dairy Cattle Physiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute)
  • Received : 2001.10.25
  • Accepted : 2002.02.15
  • Published : 2002.07.01

Abstract

Eighteen crossbred goats were selected from the Institute's goat herd to determine the changes in hormones, blood metabolites and yield and composition of milk during lactation. The blood and milk samples were collected from each goat in a heparinized vacutainer tubes at fortnightly interval for a period of 150 days. In milk samples, fat, protein and lactose contents were estimated while in blood plasma hormones viz., prolactin, GH, cortisol, insulin, $T_4$ and $T_3$ were measured using radioimmunoassay methods. The plasma concentration of prolactin, GH and cortisol were high during early lactation when the goats acquired peak milk yield. During remainder of lactation their concentration varied. The high NEFA concentration during early lactation indicated mobilization of body reserves as the body weights also decrease during early lactation. However, with the advancement of lactation, the body weights of the goats and the concentration of NEFA declined which indicated utilization of NEFA for energy yielding purposes in addition to fatty acid synthesis. The ambient temperatures did not influence plasma concentration of prolactin, GH, insulin, $T_3$ and $T_4$ during the lactation cycle. The fat content of milk varied significantly (p<0.01) but protein and lactose content of milk remains unchanged during different stages of lactation. Growth hormone was positively correlated with insulin (p<0.05) during lactation while prolactin had a positive correlation with lactose and plasma NEFA (p<0.01) and negative correlation with $T_3$ (p<0.05).

Keywords

Hormones;Blood Metabolites;Milk Yield and Composition;Lactation;Crossbred Goats

References

  1. Forsyth, I. A. and P. D. Lee. 1993. Bromocryptine treatment of periparturient goats: long term suppression of prolactin and lack of effect on lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 60:307-317.
  2. Johke, T. 1970. Factors affecting the plasma prolactin level in the cow and the goat as determined by radioimmunoassay. Endocrinol. Jap. 17:393-401.
  3. Johke, T., H. Fuse and M. Oshima. 1971. Changes in plasma prolactin level during late pregnancy and early lactation in the goat and the cow. Jap. J. Zootech. Sci. 42:173-179.
  4. Koprowski, J. A. and H. A. Tucker. 1973. Serum prolactin during various physiological stress and its relationship to milk production in the bovine. Endocrinol. 92:1480-1487. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo-92-5-1480
  5. Oser, B. L. 1965. Hawk''s Physiological Chemistry, 14th Edn, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi p. 1054.
  6. Snedecor. G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1980. Statistical Methods. 7th Edn., Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.
  7. Yousef, M. K. and H. D. Johnson. 1967. Colorigenesis of dairy cattle as influenced by hydrocortisone and environmental temperature. J. Anim. Sci. 26:1087-1093.
  8. Prema, T. P., M. A. Majid and V. Deshpande. 1989. Circulating iodine, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone of buffaloes, bull, sheep and goat. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 59:104-106.
  9. Singh, Mahendra and R. S. Ludri. 1999a. Plasma prolactin, blood metabolites and yield and composition of milk during early lactation in goats following administration of bromocryptine. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:585-589.
  10. Kloren, W. R. L., B. W. Norton and M. J. Waters. 1993. Fleece growth in Australian Cashmere goats. III. The seasonal patterns of cashmere and hair growth, and association with growth hormone, prolactin and thyroxine in blood. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:1035-1050. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9931035
  11. Knight, C. H. and D. J Flint. 1995. GH: Prolactin interactions in lactating rodents and ruminants. Hannah Res. Inst. Yearbook, pp. 73-78.
  12. Malven, P. V., H. H. Head and R. J. Collier. 1987. Secretion and mammary gland uptake of prolactin in dairy cows during lactogenesis. J. Dairy Sci. 70:2241-2253.
  13. Tindal, J. S., G. S. Knaggs, I. C. Hart and A. B. Laura. 1978. Release of growth hormone in lactating and non-lactating goats in relation to behavior, stages of sleep, electroencephalograms, environmental stimuli and levels of prolactin, insulin, glucose and FFA''s in the circulation. J. Endocrinol. 76:333-336. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.0760333
  14. Knight, C. H. 1993. Prolactin revisited. Hannah Res. Inst., Yearbook, pp. 72-80.
  15. Dalvi, S. H., B. T., Deshmukh, A. Mantri and B. A. Talvelkar. 1995. Concentration of blood serum thyroxine hormones during late pregnancy, parturition and early lactation of crossbred cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 65:15-19.
  16. Katti, P. D., J. Harold and N. Yoshimi. 1991. Hormonal profile of African pygmy goats exposed to heat environment. Anim. Sci. Technol. 62:12-17.
  17. Prakash, P. and V. S. Rathore. 1991. Seasonal variations in blood serum profiles of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in goat. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 61:1311-1312.
  18. Singh, Mahendra and R. S. Ludri. 1994. Plasma growth hormone profile and milk yield response of Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) treated with slow release formulation of Somedobove. Buffalo. J. 10:81-84.
  19. Singh, Mahendra and R. S. Ludri. 1999. Immediate effect of bromocryptine on plasma hormone concentration during early lactation in crossbred goats. Small Rumin. Res. 31:141-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(98)00122-9
  20. Ludri, R. S. and P. V. Sharma. 1985. Cortisol concentration in the blood plasma of lactating Beetal goats and their crosses. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 55:505-508.
  21. Singhal, O. P. and Des Raj. 1989. New approaches for chemical quality assurance. Indian Dairyman 41:43-47.
  22. Shipe, W. F., G. F. Senyk and K. B. Fountain. 1980. Modified copper soap solvent extraction method for measuring free fatty acids in milk. J. Dairy Sci. 63:193-198.
  23. Saha, A. and Singh, Mahendra. 1998. Plasma hormones, blood metabolites, milk Yield and composition in early lactation of buffaloes treated with bromocryptine. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 368-374.
  24. I.S.I. 1958. IS: 1224., Determination of fat in whole milk, evaporated milk, separated milk, skim milk, butter milk and cream by Gerber method. Indian Standard Institution, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi.
  25. Perry, A. E. and F. J. Doon. 1950. Picric acid method for simultaneous determination for lactose and sucrose in dairy products. J. Dairy Sci. 33:176.
  26. Yousef, M. K. and H. D. Johnson. 1966. Colorigenesis of dairy cattle as influenced by thyroxine and environmental temperature. J. Anim. Sci. 25:150-156.