Quantification of Karanjin Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Raw and Detoxified Karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) Seed Cake

  • Prabhu, T.M. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Devakumar, C. (Division Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute) ;
  • Sastry, V.R.B. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Agrawa, D.K. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute)
  • Received : 2001.03.12
  • Accepted : 2001.08.29
  • Published : 2002.03.01


Various products of karanj (Pongamia glabra) are utilized for industrial, health and animal agriculture applications in the Indian subcontinent. Despite a rich source of protein (CP, 28-34%), karanj cake was found to be slightly bitter in taste and toxic owing to the presence of flavonoid (Karanjin), restricting its safe inclusion in the livestock diets. Feeding trials with raw cake revealed its poor palatability and adverse performance among different categories of livestock including poultry. The present study was, therefore, aimed to detoxify karanj cake by various physico-chemical methods like solvent extraction, water washing, pressure cooking and alkali and acid treatments. The level of residual karanjin in raw and variously processed cake was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The raw expeller karanj cake was found to contain about 0.19% of karanjin. Though a non-polar solvent, soxhlet extraction of expeller pressed cake with petroleum ether drastically reduced karanjin content (0.01%). Soaking of cake for 24 h in 1% NaOH (w/w) solution was found to reduce karanjin to a major extent with little further benefit by increasing alkali level. Milder alkalies like lime and fertilizer grade urea reduced the karanjin levels marginally. Similar was the case with mineral acids such as HCl and glacial acetic acid. It was, therefore, concluded that solvent extraction of karanj seeds would be the best method of detoxification as well as for more recovery of oil and karanjin.


Supported by : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research


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